3 1833 01782 6659

GENEALOGY 977 OL152 1907

Digitized by the Internet Archive in 2013

the "old northwest" Genealogical Quarterly.

Volume X. No. 1. January, 1907.





The "Old Northwest" Genealogical Society,

Memorial Hall, East Broad Street.


Entered at the Post Office at Columbus, Ohio, as second-class mail matter.


TnMtmttan GJommitta:





Autobiography of Allen Trimble 2

Selections from Gov. Trimble's Papers. 49

Thomas Dtckerson .. .. 55

Ethan Bancroft's Ancestry and Descendants . .. 67

Interesting Collection of Manuscripts ; T 75

Bishop McCabe 80

George Bancroft Kilbourne 81

Dr. Homer L. Thrall...., 83

A Sketch of the Township of Randolph, Portage Co., 0 86

Book Notices 90

Notes and Queries 91

Proceedings of the Society : 92

Official Reports for 1906 . .93

Officers and List of Members 94

NOTICE.— It is the aim of the Publication Committee to admit into The Quarterly only such new Genealogical, Biographical and Historical matter as may be relied on for accuracy and authenticity, but neither the Society nor its Committee is responsible for opin- ions or errors of contributors, whether published under the name or without signature.

columbus : Press of Spahr & Glenn.


The Income of this Society

is entirely devoted to the publication or

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More Members



[ See Blank Application on Page 96.]





JANUARY, 1907.


(Continued from page 287, Volume IX.)

I spent the winter pleasantly, visiting my relatives some ten or twelve families principally on mother's side of the house; my father having but one half-brother, Colonel Moffett, in that country. Some three or four weeks before my intended depar- ture for Kentucky, a retired merchant from near Lexington, Ky., a man of great wealth was returning from a trip to Maryland. He called at my grandfather's, Colonel Allen's, a short distance from the road. The tavern was only a short distance off. He had with him a negro boy and a very ugly animal, a jackass he had purchased in Maryland. He was entertained hospitably but I saw that it was thought that he might as well have stopped at the Tavern. The next morning when he was about to start it was discovered that the Jack was badi}^ foundered. He had been travelled the day previous without stopping to feed. The animal was hungry and being full fed at Colonel Allen's this was the consequence.

My Kentucky acquaintance, for I happen to know him, was in trouble. He had been some time from home and was anxious to return. He could not wait for his foundered animal and how to get the negro boy and the jack back to Kentucky was the question. As I intended returning in a few weeks he proposed leaving his stock with" Colonel Allen, to be sent out when I returned and agreed to pay me fifty dollars for my attention and furnishing a horse for his boy to ride. I accepted his office. He paid me $60, ten of which were to defray the boy and Jack's expenses, and so he left for Kentucky.

In ten days "Moses" for that was the animal's name was able to walk, and in a month so far recovered as to justify putting him on the road. I had promised a horse for the black boy to ride, and concluded that I was ready to start for home, but hearing that there was in Winchester, Va., a celebrated mathematical instrument manufactured by Goldsmith Chandler, I determined to obtain if possible, a surveying compass and chain to take

2 Autobiography of Allen Trimble. [Jan.,

home with me. The mail was carried from Staunton to Win- chester on horse back by a man of the name of Bocket. It was carried but once a week. I saw Mr. Bocket and employed him to bring me a compass the very next week, which he did. The money paid for this compass was the first I had obtained for my services and I set it down as the starting point of my earnings.

Whilst I was waiting for my compass a new care sprang up that greatly increased my responsibility. A certain man had removed from Augusta, Va., to Kentucky, leaving a son, a minor appren- ticed to a cabinet business. When this son John came of age he concluded to remain in Virginia. Col. Allen built a shop and set

young John up in business. During the first three or

four years John did a profitable business, but falling in with a young man who was a professed gambler, John was soon stripped of his earnings and poor John "took to the bottle," and soon became a decidedly intemperate man. His father had fre- quently written to him to leave Virginia and come to Kentucky, but John had not money to bear his expenses and no one was willing to trust him. The father had written to Colonel Allen, requesting him if any opportunity offered to send his son to Kentucky. The Colonel concluded if I would take charge of the young man he would furnish a horse and other necessities for the journey. I had heard so much of this young man's profitless and desperate character, that I felt unwilling to carry the funds for his expenses. He was a very stout man, six feet two inches high, strong and active, about thirty years of age, a man of high temper, and when intoxicated quite ungovernable. I was a boy only eighteen years of age, in delicate health and even when well, not stout. But what could I do? My grandparents, their son and family, with whom I had spent so much of my time and had so enjoyed myself during my visit with them, were all anxious that John should be taken to his father and family, and they thought I could manage him even better than a man of years and strength, in the event he was disposed to drink or gamble.

I told my relatives to bring John in and we would decide the question. He was sent for. He was sober but looked as if oppressed with melancholy thoughts. Colonel Allen told him he had concluded to have him take the journey to Kentucky in company with Allen Trimble if matters could be satisfactorily arranged. "But," said Colonel Allen, "John, you know your besetting sin: If you had your pockets full of money and should see a pack of cards and a bottle of whisky you would not rest while a dollar remained. Now, if you start to Kentucky with this boy (for he is only a boy), you must consent to let him carry the purse, and promise to keep sober during the journey. He held up his head and with a forced smile said it was quite com- mon with gentlemen travelling together for one to carry the change and pay the bills and that he would cheerfully agree to

1907.] Autobiography of Allen Trimble. 3

that arrangement. I remarked that I felt more than willing; that I was anxious to render service to my friends and relatives whenever in my power, and that it would give me great pleasure to be instrumental in restoring him to his family in Kentucky.

And now if you will promise me, Mr. , on your Honour, that you

will submit to this arrangement (which your friends think abso- lutely necessary), take no exception to it on the way, and keep sober and avoid cards until we land at your father's house, I will pledge to you, my Honour, that I will treat you as a gentle- man and equal and as a travelling companion, make your trip as pleasant as I can. He rose from his seat, the tears dropping over his ruddy cheeks, took me in his arms, and said in a trem- ulous voice, " I do pledge to you, Allen Trimble, my honour and my life, that I will be governed in all things by your counsel and advise."

We set out about the first of April. I had not calculated much on the black boy as a waiter. In fact, I did not desire it for I had learned to wait on myself but I did not expect to have to wait on the negro. I had mounted him on a fine young horse owned by a Captain Kirk of Kentucky who had left- the horse with Colonel Moffett, his father-in-law. It was to be sent out by some friend from Virginia. John, the negro, boy could ride but could not for the life of him mount the horse without assist- ance. We travelled on pleasantly, Mr. John conducting

himself with great propriety. When we arrived at the crossing of Clinch River, the water was high. I reined up my horse and

was pointing out to John the ferry above the circular ford

and the place crossed by my mother in 1784, when she carried me and my brother in her arms. It was a warm day and Moses, who has been mentioned, pushed into the stream, took "the straight shute" soon disappearing, all but hea"d and ears. The current carried him down to a large rock projecting out of the water upon which he was thrown by the waves. Recovering his feet he shook himself and looked as composed as if nothing had happened. The rock was about fifty or sixty feet from the shore. We called but he heeded us not. We then rode up to the ferry, hoping he would follow, but he kept his position. We consulted the ferryman. He said a skift or canoe could not

safely venture into that part of the stream. John said he

would try to drive him off the rock by pelting him with stones. He made the trial and as he was strong he threw stones with great precision and force. Moses shut his eyes at first, threw back his ears and bid defiance to the assault. At length he began to shake his head but continued to bear the stones most

patiently. I told Mr. to aim at his head. The second

blow upon the wisdom organ brought Moses to his knees, threw him off his balance, and he slid from the rock into the water and swam to shore on the same side of the river he went in at. We had no more trouble in keeping him out of water the rest of the journey.

4 A utobiography of A lien Trimble. [Jan.,

We reached Claybourne Court House, Tennessee, that evening at nightfall. The villagers had probably never seen a long-eared

animal and Moses was a sight. Mr. John discovered the

anxiety of the people to see the stranger, and soon as he rode up

to the Tavern, Moses was hurried into the stable. John

and the negro John, as usual, attended to the horses, whilst I was making arrangements for supper. I had not suspected

John 's object. He had found that something could be

made by gratifying the curiosity of the men and boys who had run after us to the Tavern and others to the stables to see the

wonderful animal. I told Mr. when I discovered his

purpose, that it would not do to make the people pay for looking at a Jack. He said he wanted to make a few ninepence for John, the negro ; that he would take the responsibility.

I went to bed and left John and the negro boy to carry

on the exhibition which they did quite to the satisfaction of all. I have now forgotten the amount they made but it was enough to keep John the negro smiling and exhibiting his ivory for the rest of the journey, when the subject was mentioned. Some of the people followed us quite a distance on our journey the next morning in order to take a farewell look at Moses.

Nothing worthy of remark occurred during the remainder of

the journey. John kept his word, drank no spirits and

behaved himself like a gentleman. His family received him with great joy and when John related to them the interest I had taken in his behalf their kindness and gratitude was warmly manifested with tears running over their cheeks and prayers offered to the Most High for His choicest blessings to accompany me through life and death. I never saw one of them afterward.

The thirteenth day after leaving Colonel Allen's in Virginia I arrived at my home in Kentucky. I had been absent over four months. It was a joyful meeting. All crowded around me and after the ' ' shaking hands ' ' all around on such occasions was over my mother inquired for the health of her parents and family of relatives in Virginia and having learned that they were in good health she said she hoped I had a pleasant and profitable visit. I answered in the affirmative. "O }^es," said a little brother (Cary), "I see Mother, Allen has brought another nigger, another horse and the awfullest looking thing you ever saw ! ' ' They all exclaimed, "What does Cary mean?" and ran to the porch to see what it could be that Cary had discovered.

John, the black boy, and "the Jack" I had purposely left at the outer gate and had slipped into the house unperceived by the family. The darkey and horse were familiar sights, but to all but father the Jack was a great curiosity. I was soon required to give an account of how and where I got John and those ani- mals. Having done so I opened the saddlebags. (Some one of the family had felt the weight of them and looked very closely to see what I had to take out. I first drew out some presents from

1907.] Autobiography of Allen Trimble. 5

the Virginia friends to mother and my sisters, but they were light articles. I next drew out the surveying instruments before mentioned. The compass was a large and heavy one for those times. I unwrapped it and handed it to father, who examined it, inquiring in the meantime if I had bought it for myself. I said I had, adding that as it was possible I might go to the new country I concluded I would when I had so favorable an opportunity to get a set of instruments. I discovered that my father was much gratified, and he said that I had acted very wisely. I was very happy to feel that nothing I had done during my absence was a disappointment to my parents, but that they approved. A knowledge of this fact I have often thought strengthened my purposes to so conduct myself as to look for and expect their further approval. Nothing had occurred dur- ing my absence to occasion a painful thought. My own health had improved and the family were in usual health upon my return.

Mother had always expressed a wish that I should obtain a good education. She was a reader of good books. When fifteen 3^ears of age she had committed the four Gospels to memory, large portions of Milton, Young, Cowper, Thomson, and she was a beautiful letter writer ; and she was ambitious for her children, as was father. But as he could not spare both brother William and myself from the farm there were six sons of us, and two daughters I being fond of farming and having lived now at ease for so long, (work was agreeable), it was decided that William should go to school, and I assist father.

I related to him that I had met in Virginia a Mr. Steinberger who resided on the south branch of the Potomac, an extensive farmer and engaged in feeding, marketing and fattening cattle in Richmond and Baltimore, and perhaps Philadelphia; and that at the suggestion of one of our relations, Mr. Bell, Mr. Steinberger proposed forming a partnership with me, the object of which was to purchase cattle in Kentucky and drive to Virginia. I should make the purchases and drive or cause them to be driven to Virginia, where he would receive and market them and give me a share of the profits, to be agreed upon, etc. I had informed Mr. Steinberger that I was a minor, had no capital, was unac- quainted with the business and could not enter into such an engagement without consultation with my father.

Whilst we were in conversation on this subject, Mr. Nicholas Lewis and his wife, who was a sister of my mother, paid us a visit during which the Steinberger proposition was mentioned. I had become rather anxious to impress my father favorably in relation to this matter. I told him of the fact that beef and pork had commanded in Virginia ten dollars per hundred, when in Kentucky pork was a "drug" at two dollars and beef only saleable on the hoof at even a lower price. My father's objection was that partnerships were dangerous and required the utmost

6 Autobiography of Allen Trimble. [Jan.,

probity and strictest care, even when the parties were united in the oversight of their business ; and separated as Mr. Steinberger and I were over five hundred miles apart the dangers and difficulties of such partnership would be too much, that he could not consent to it. This told the whole story a firm, decisive man my father was.

Mr. Lewis remarked that there was more money to be made by driving hogs to the eastern market, than cattle. We were all surprised at this remark, supposing it was altogether impractica- ble to drive hogs so great a distance, but Mr. Lewis said that they travelled as fast and carried their flesh better and on less feed than cattle, and as proof of this fact he told us that he was connected with the contractor for the supply of General Anthony Wayne's army in the Indian campaign of 1794-5. And that they were compelled to rely upon hogs in part for the supply of the troops from Cincinnati to Detroit; that the hogs were less trouble, traveled better and although they had no grain to feed them they kept their flesh better than cattle; that a part of those hogs bought in Kentucky, near Lexington, had been driven to Detroit. If Mr. Lewis had not been a man of character his statements would not have been believed

I at once suggested to father that he loan Mr. Lewis and me the money necessary to purchase a drove and make the exper- iment of driving hogs from Kentucky to Virginia, (Mr. Lewis said yes, he would join me with pleasure) . Father hesitated, and said he did not altogether approve my suggestion. Mr. Lewis had been in very affluent circumstances but had failed in business in Frankfort where he had lived and had consequently retired to a small farm given him by his father and the title retained, for Mr. Lewis had been extravagant and suspected of gambling. So although he had united with the Presbyterian Church a short time before, father thought he would not be a very safe partner. But after consultation with mother and Aunt Lewis,* who, by the way, was a remarkably sensible woman, and a great favorite with our family, father yielded to our importunity, and Mr. Lewis and I commenced engaging hogs to be fully fatted and delivered by the 15th ult. at $2 per hundred lbs. net. This was in July. Having engaged the number he wanted, about four hundred, we made preparation to start by procuring "hands," pack horses and equipments.

Knowing that from the Crab Orchard to Beans Station, one- half the distance to Richmond, we would be in a country almost uninhabited and destitute of provisions for man at least, we provided as for a campaign of thirty days bread, cheese, coffee, sugar and cooking utensils, etc. 1803, about the 25th of Octo-

*The Lewis family of Nicholasville, among whose letters I find aunt Mrs. Polly Lewis', are dated from Poplar Hill, Jassamine Co., 1814; an \mcle, Nicholas Lewis, Martha Mitch- ell Frazer, 1X19, from Frankfort, Ky.; Mrs. Susan Allen, 1818-19, written to her dear nephews, William H. and Allen Trimble, and from William Allen, Jr., Lexington, Febru- ary, 1815.

1907.] Autobiography of Allen Trimble. 7

ber, we collected our drove and began a march for Richmond, Va., some 600 miles distant. The subject of driving fat hogs to Virginia was new and produced in the neighborhood quite a sensation, and many were the predictions as to the result of our enterprise. Some of Mr. Lewis' acquaintances who knew his fondness for a game of brag said a certain man would brag A. Trimble out of his hogs before a week and then swap them for a race horse. Others wondered that Captain James Trimble would furnish money for a speculation where there was so little hope of the principal being saved, etc.

Amidst all these unfavorable auguries I started with high hopes of success. Up to the fourth day (during which time we passed through a rich settlement), we obtained corn for our hogs, but on the fifth day we left Crab Orchard and entered the wilderness. That night we camped in the woods for the first time. We had some fears that the hogs would scatter, (as we had no corn for them) , but we had travelled through beech and chestnut woods the latter part of the day and so slowly that our pigs had without much delay satisfied their hunger and lay down as contentedly that night as if they had been in their own sty. In East Tennessee and Western Virginia we found oak and beech sufficient to keep the hogs in good condition, but when we left the mountains and entered the pine lands we had to purchase corn, from 75 cents to $1 per bushel, until we reached James River and Carter's Ferry and on to Richmond we paid only 50 cents per bushel.

Mr. Lewis had a relative, a wealthy farmer, residing on the north side of the river and near the road we were travelling, upon whom he said he must call and left us for that purpose. The next morning Mr. Lewis and his uncle, Colonel Curd, met us and the Colonel informed me that he had laid an embargo (a very common and significant word then in old Virginia), upon Mr Lewis and the drove must be driven to his farm near the river, and that I must bring the boys to his house. It is unnecessary to say the order of the Colonel was obeyed to the letter, the Colonel guiding to where on the farm the drove was to be put up. And then on to his mansion. I soon discovered that Colonel Curd lived in a style indicating not only wealth, but taste and refinement. When dinner was announced we were taken into the parlors by the Colonel and his two sons and introduced to Mrs. Curd and her two daughters and then conducted to the dining room where we partook of an excellent dinner bacon and cabbage were served as one course.

It was about the 20th of December. I was anxious to get to Richmond (thirty miles off) before Christmas, so I inquired of Mr. Lewis after dinner, in presence of the family, how long he intended to remain with his friends. He said not more than a day. "A day, indeed," said the Colonel, "you must stay a at least." "Oh, yes, yes," said the old lady and her daughters,

8 Autobiography of Allen Trimble. Uan.r

"cousin Nickey, you must stay until after Christmas anyhow." I remarked that I would go on next day with the drove and Mr. Lewis might remain two days and overtake me at Richmond on the third day. The Colonel said: " Boys, that will not be a wise arrangement. One of you ought to go to Richmond one or two days before the hogs arrive in order to ascertain the state of the market and make arrangements for slaughtering or selling on foot, as may be best." I admitted the Colonel had a sensible view of the subject, but there seemed difficulties in adopting his plan. Thomas Lewis, a brother of Nicholas, who had spent his fortune in early life at cards, etc., had accompanied us. He remarked in his waggish manner, for he was a great wag, that he would arrange the matter so as to accommodate all parties. If Nicholas let him have his horse he, Tom, would go on with the drove to Richmond, make sale of the hogs and return to Col. Curd's, allowing his brother in the meantime to finish his visit. Nicholas laughingly said: "Brother, I fear you might meet some of your old friends in Richmond such as George and Frederick Straws, who would soon relieve you of the drove and the price of it." "There might be some danger," replied Tom, "but would there be more safety for money in your hands than mine? The last time we were in Richmond together old Straws got more money from you two to one than he did from me." Tom's repartee (but for the kind feeling of the family toward these relations), would have produced a hearty laugh at Nicholas' expense.

Colonel Curd said after a suppressed laugh: "Boys, I can settle this matter for you. It seems that cousin Tom and Nick have some acquaintances in Richmond whom they wish to avoid rather than renew their acquaintance, and I think it would be prudent to do so, and as a stranger can do what is necessary to be first done in the city start your drove so as to be

at the five-mile house, Mr. L tavern, on the evening of the

25th, Christmas. Let this young man," (he should have said boy), laying his hand upon my head, "leave you so as to be at the five-mile house on the night of the 23rd. These arrangements should be made for the hogs and the hands to remain until a sale

is effected, and it would not be amiss to call on Major

who resides in sight of the five-mile house. He owns a large farm, works fifty hands and might slaughter your hogs and haul them to Richmond at a less price than would be demanded in the city. Then go to Richmond, hunt up the Winegarners and other butchers and you will soon be able to decide what else to do." This proposition was agreed to.

"My consort," said the Colonel, addressing himself to his wife and then to his daughters, "you must get up a little party for our friends tomorrow night," which was at once agreed to. I then remarked to the Colonel that as we all were in rather ludicrous trim to be quartered in a gentleman's family and



1907.] Autobiography of Allen Trimble. 9

totally unprepared to be seen at a fashionable party I hoped he would allow me to take the hands to a tavern a mile or two distant. He said, "No, sir, no! You are as welcome to the hospitality of my house as my nephews and your ' hands ' can be taken care of without trouble. They must not leave you. We are not surprised to see you in drover's costume, so I beg you, sir, to make yourself perfectly easy as if you were at home." I endeavored to do so.

"When the next evening arrived the carriages began to drive up and before dark quite a large number of young ladies and gentlemen appeared. The house, a very spacious one, was filled with guests. The Colonel's oldest son had but recently commenced the practice of medicine and the second had returned from College but a few days before. They were very polite to me and gave me an introduction to the young gentlemen as they arrived. I took care to keep at a distance from the ladies and requested Dr. Curd to make a suitable apology for my declining the introductions which he did. After the dancing commenced Colonel Curd came into the room where I was sitting alone (the hands had retreated to Dr. Curd's office) and insisted upon my going into the dancing hall with him. I told him he must excuse me that I was not fond of dancing and to attempt to dance in my heavy boots was what I could not consent to do. The Colonel laughed heartily and said he would send some of the boys to keep me company. I told him not to do so that I did not desire to deprive any of the young men the society of the ladies. Soon, however, Dr. Curd and three of the young men came into the room and the Doctor gave me a more particular introduction to a Mr. Polk and Mr. Randle and Mr. Shelton, graduates of Williams and Marys College or some other college.

After some common place remarks the subject of farming, planting, stock growing in Kentucky was introduced. I think they believed if I knew anything it would be about stock, and planting corn. I answered their questions which was not a very difficult matter, and when Dr. Curd invited me to the sideboard to take a glass of wine, having obeyed the summons, one of the young gentlemen turned to me and said, "Mr. Trimble, is Kentucky in the United States?" Without much reflection, for I supposed he intended to insult me, I stepped back and shut my fist ready to defend my State. But when I looked him in the eye I saw he was in earnest and knew no better. My muscles relaxed in a moment and I replied that Kentucky was not only one of the States of the American Union but the first born of the fifteen and claimed Virginia as her mother. Dr. Curd seemed mortified for the young graduate and said in rather an undertone, "Did you not know Kentucky was one of the States of the Union?" "I had forgotten it," the young man said. Tom Lewis came in at that moment to join in a glass of wine and hearing my reply, tried to change the subject by inquiring:

10 Autobiography of Allen Trimble. [Jan.,

"Can you tell me, gentlemen, who has the best breed of game cocks in Goochland County?" "Oh yes," said one, "Tom Pem- berton has the best in the State." This was doubted by one of the company who thought Paul Carrington's breed was the best blood.

So we had quite a discussion upon the subject of breeding and fighting chickens. Then upon fox hunting and horse racing in which our wag, Tom Lewis, took a full share. "Uncle Lewis," said Dr. Curd, "I noticed in your drove today a small pig. He looked old enough to be a hog, but no larger than a common pig a day old. Where did you get it?" "Oh, yes," said Lewis, "that was Tom Thumb, as we call him." "He was going on three legs," said the Doctor. "Yes," said Lewis, "well, I will tell all I know about the pig. He got into the drove near Dan- ville, Ky. We caught him several times as we travelled on the first day and put him in fields by the roadside, but the little devil would get out and follow, and we concluded to let him go as far as he could and here he is! having travelled near six hundred miles." "Was he lame when you started?" "No. He met with a sad accident in the wilderness when the hogs had to live on mostly chestnuts and acorns, as we could get no corn to feed them Tom Thumb soon learned (for he is the wisest of his kind I ever saw except the learned pig they had in Kentucky for a show) ; as I said, Tom had learned that he was in danger of being tramped to death when in the crowd of large hogs, and for a while he kept upon the outskirts of the drove. That position some- times forced him into places difficult to pass over. He then fell in the rear that would have suited him best but for the fact that the mast was so cleaned up by the front hogs that poor Tom was likely to starve, so I picked him up one day and carried him forward and sat him down in the road several hundred yards ahead of the drove where there were plenty of nuts and there they left him. After that the pig kept ahead when the drove would overtake him. He would scamper on like a kitten and gain time to eat and rest if he needed it."

"On one occasion he got hold of a horse chestnut. He gouged a hole in one side, and had eaten the kernel nearly out when the front of the drove came up. There was a large hog, a monster that we had to sell at Lynchburg, he weighed over 600 lbs. His feet were worn out and he could not travel farther, but when he came up to the nut shell in which Tom Thumb was at work. Not knowing the pig was inside he took hold of the pig in his tremendous mouth and Tom found himself in a bad box. He squealed but it was too late. One of his forelegs was broken. It happened one of the hands had gone ahead to turn the drove off the road to camp for the night, and saw what had befallen the little pig. He took him in his arms and carried him to camp where we got some splinters and set his leg. So we carried him a few days until he was able to keep up and now, although he

1907.] Autobiography of Allen Trimble. 11

limps, he can outtravel any hog in the drove. And if you had seen him swim James River yesterday at Carter's Ferry you would admit that he could not be beat." "James River!" ejaculated one of the company in astonishment, "I never heard of such a pig."

"But," said the Doctor's uncle, Tom Lewis, "you spoke of a learned pig exhibited in Kentucky as a show. What could he do?" "He could spell any word," said Mr. Lewis, "you would name." "Could he talk," inquired some one." "No, but his owner and keeper had cards with the letters of the alphabet printed on them separately. These cards were placed in a circle on the floor or platform. The pig was placed in the center of the circle, and his keeper kept outside of the ring. Any bystander could name a word to be spelled say, Henry Clay. The pig was then directed by his keeper to spell Henry Clay. He would throw up his nose look around the ring of letters and march to ' H ', pick it up and lay it down on a chalk line; then go to ' E,' take that up and lay it down on the chalk line to the right of the 'H' and so pursue this process until "Henry Cla", eight letters, were laid on the line."

"Did you see this thing you describe, sir," asked the Doctor.

"Yes, sir," said Mr. Lewis, "and a dozen other words spelled in the presence of a hundred spectators. By this time our room was about filled with young men from the dancing hall, listening to Tom Lewis' pig stories. I had taken no part in the game- cock, fox or pig subjects, but Dr. Curd asked me if I had seen the learned pig described by his cousin Tom. I said I had not seen it but I had met several persons who had witnessed those feats of orthography. "Well! Well!" said someone, "you must have a superior breed of pigs in Kentucky to our Virginia pigs."

"No, sir," said Tom, "they are better educated. The learned pig I have been telling about was raised in Connecticut where children are all educated, rich and poor alike, and the pig I have told you about was a pet, went to school with the children and there was taught to spell. Your pigs in Virginia run with the little niggers and of course know nothing. If I had a Yankee schoolmaster I have no doubt my little Tom Thumb could be taught to spell or do anything that any other pig could do."

The company all seemed deeply interested in Lewis' pig stories and parted from him reluctantly when the hour arrived for the invited guests to leave the house.

The occurrences of the evening opened a new chapter for reflections: The question of negro slavery had been so fre- quently discussed by our family that the arguments pro and con came to my mind that evening and I had the truth of some of my father's positions fully demonstrated. He maintained that great as the wrong of slavery was, the negro was not the only sufferer wherever it existed but that its tendency was to enervate the white race and that it would not only produce idle, dissolute

12 Autobiography of Allen Trimble. [Jan.,

men, but that it would be unfavorable to moral or intellectual progress, and prove a curse wherever it existed, especially to the rising generation. On that evening I had seen and heard young men (my seniors) conversing on various topics, common to the country and not beyond the reach of common intellects even of ordinary cultivation, and although some of them were graduates of Colleges they were as ignorant of the extent and the history of the country in which they lived as the aborigines of the West and some of them more so.

And this in Virginia! My native State, the history of whose brave and superior people and their gallant traditions I had learned from nursery tales that made deep and strong impres- sions upon my youthful mind. The names of Washington, Jefferson, Madison, Monroe, Henry, Lee, Marshall, etc., and their great achievements, had been household words and their memories that have been cherished with a feeling for greatness, their characters held up as models of intellectual worth and moral fulfillment. It was not strange that I should have felt the great pride I did in my native State. But the mortification to find in this Old Dominion, among the wealthy and educated, such unmistakable evidences of a decline in mental vigor and aspirations among the youth of this great and renowned com- monwealth. I came to the conclusion that slavery made its impress upon the character of the people where it existed, and that the evils of African slavery would be cumulative and keep pace with the progress of the system.

I left there for Richmond, reached there the five-mile house mentioned by Colonel Curd that night, and early the next morn- ing mounted my horse and rode to Major 's mansion.

Nicholas Lewis admonished me to be on my guard if I called on this gentleman. He said he knew him well and that he was one of the most pompous aristocrats in Virginia. I rode up to his stile ten paces from his dwelling and seeing no one, I dis- mounted, stepped to the door, and, upon knocking, a black boy

came and opened the door. I inquired if Major was in.

He said he was, but he wasn't yet out of bed. "Tell him," I said, "there is a gentleman here on business." I did not give him time to inquire my name but said I was cold and asked if he had a fire. "Yes sir," he said, "take a seat." He then went to tell the Major. I could hear the conversation between them: "Master, gent in room wants to see you." "Who is he?" "I don't know, sir." "What the devil did you let him in before he told you his name and business? Go and stay in the room until I come." It was fully a half hour 'before the Major entered, exhibiting one of the most austere, haughty looking Virginians I had ever seen. I rose, bowed slightly, a horse whip and my hat

in hand. I said, "You are Major , I suppose. I am

Allen Trimble, a young drover from Kentucky. I have a fine drove of hogs, and have been directed to inquire of you before

1907.] Autobiography of Allen Trimble. 13

going to Richmond. Having understood that you had a large family of negroes and an active overseer, I thought that you' might possibly have made some arrangements for slaughtering of hogs at your farm and deliver them dressed in Richmond on better terms than I could get it done in the city."

I kept my eye on his countenance while I made my statement, and I saw that as soon as he comprehended my object his expres- sion changed and before I finished my short address the Colonel had relaxed his features and come down to the attitude of a Virginia gentleman. "Why, sir," said he, "a drove of hogs from Kentucky! Come, sir, take a chair, astonishing! astonish- ing! Why, yes, sir, I would like very much to have your hogs or a part of them slaughtered for the off all. Tom, go tell the

overseer to come here instantly." Mrs. then made her

appearance. The Colonel gave me a very formal introduction, adding, "my dear, this young gentleman, Mr. Trimble, has a drove of fat hogs from Kentucky that will be here tonight."

Mrs. had learned the value in the ns. She remarked,

"that she hoped the enterprise would be profitable and that the trade would increase and raise the price of pork in Virginia." By this time the overseer was at the outer door with his hat under his arm, to learn the will of the Colonel who inquired of the overseer if he could make arrangements to slaughter a large number of hogs, stating where they were from, etc. After a few moments of reflection the overseer said, they would slaughter a portion of them and perhaps all but he would not say positively how many. I told the Colonel I did not wish to make a positive engagement until I went to the city that I would return that evening and let him know whether it would be most profitable to butcher in the city or country and prepared to leave but Mrs.