AMERICAN NATURALIST,

AN ILLUSTRATED MAGAZINE

NATURAL HISTORY.

A. S. PACKARD, Jr. and F. W. PUTNAM. R. H. WARD,

SALEM, MASS. \BODY ACADEMY OF SCIF.:

. PUTNAM & CO,

CONTENTS OF VOL. VIII.

Notes from tiie Journal of a Botanist in Europe. By W. G. Farlow,

M.D. pp. 1, 112, 295. Ornithological Notes from the South. By C.Hart Merriam. pp. 6,

Botanical Observations in Western Wyoming. By Dr. C. C. Parry.

pp.9, 102, 175,211. Animal Life of the Cuyamaca Mountains. By Dr. J. G. Cooper, p. 14. On the Relationship between Development and i in; Sexual Condi-

;\t Aspects of Biology and the Method of Biological

Study. By Professor Allraaa. p. 34. TnE Yellowstone National Park. By Theodore B. Comstock, B. S.

pp. 65, 155. On the Structure and Affinities of the Brontotheridjs. By Prof.

O. C. Marsh. With two plates, p. 79. The Botany of the Cuyamaca Mountains. By J. G. Cooper, M. D.

Science in the United States. From the French of Alphonse DeCan-

Notes upon American Water Birds. By Robert Ridgway. p. 103. Three different Modes of Teething among Selachians. By Prof.

Louis Agassiz. p. 129. The Wild Cattle of Scotland, or White Forest Breed. By E. Lewis

Sturtevant. p. 135. Exploration of the Gulf of Maine with the Dredge. By A. S. Pack- ard, Jr. Illustrated, p. 145. The Giant Cuttle-fishes of Newfoundland and TnE common Squids

of the New England Coast. By Prof. A. E. Verrill. Illustrated.

p. 167. The Flora of Penikese Island. By Prof. D. S. Jordan, p. 193. On Local Vaki a i ion-; in the Notes and Nesting Habits of Birds. By

Robert Ridgway. p. 197. A new Species of Willow from California, and Notes on somk other

North American Species. By M. S. Bebb. p. 202. TnE Robin. By Caroline Boyce. p. 203. The Natural History of a Polymorphic Butterfly. By Samuel H.

Scudder. p. 257. The Game Falcons of New England. The Sparrow Hawk. By Dr.

William Wood. p. 266.

(Ill)

VOLUME VIII.

Nature's Means of Limiting the Numbers of Insects. By A. S. Pack- ard, Jr. Illustrated, p. 270. Habits and Characteristics of Swainson's Buzzard. By Dr. Elliott

Fossil Horses in America. By Prof. O. C. Marsh. Illustrated, p. 288.

The Preservation of Caterpillars by Inflation. By Samuel H. Scudder. Illustrated, p. 321.

Notes on the Cyprinoids of Central New Jersey. By Charles C. Abbott, M.D. Illustrated, p. 326.

The Migration of Birds. By T. Martin Trippe. p. 338.

On the Structure and Casting of the Antlers of Deer. By John Dean Caton, LL.D. p. 348.

The Classification of TnE Rhynchophorous Coleoptera. By John L. LeConte, M. D. p. 385. Concluded p. 452.

Observations on Drosera filiformis. By William M. Canby p. 396.

A Key to the Higher Alg.e of the Atlantic Coast, between New- foundland and Florida. By Prof. D. S. Jordan, pp. 398, 479.

Human Remains in the Shell-Heaps of the St. John's River, East Florida. Cannibalism. By Prof. J. Wyman. p. 403.

The History of the Lobster. By A. S. Packard, Jr. With plate and

Notes on the Flora of Southern Florida. By Frederick Brendel.

p. 449. Herbarium Cases. By Dr. C. C. Parry. With cut. p. 471. Charles Robert Darwin. By Prof. Asa Gray. p. 473. The Agricultural Ant. By Dr. G. Lincecum. p. 513. Azalea viscosa, a Flycatcher. By W. W. Bailey, p. 517. On the Antenna in the Lepidoptera. By A. R. Grote, A.M. p. 519. The Social Life of the Lower Animals. By Prof. P. J. Van Bene-

den. p. 521. On the Distribution and Primitive Number of Spiracles in Insects.

By A. S. Packard, Jr. p. 531.

\ Variation in North American Blrds. By J. A. Allen.

rs on the Supposed Auditory Apparatus of the Mos- By Prof. A. M. Mayer. Illustrated, p. 577. . Spider. By Dr. G. Lincecum. p. 593. On the Nesting of Certain Hawks, etc. By Dr. Elliott Coues, U.S.A.

p. 596. ' The Metamorphosis of Flies. I, II, III. By Dr. August Weissmann.

pp. 603, 661, 713. Address of Prof. Joseph Lovering. pp. 612, 641. English Sparrows. By Thomas G. Gentry, p. 667. Lmbricative ^sttvation. By A. P. Morgan. With cuts. p. 705. On the Cotton Worm of the Southern States (Aletia argillacea Hub.).

By Aug. R. Grote. p. 722. Lots Histories of the Protozoa. By A. S. Packard, Jr. Illustrated.

REVIEWS AND BOOK NOTICES. The Systematic Position of the Brachiopods (Illustrated) p. 43. North American Grasshoppers, p. 53. British Marine Seaweeds, p. 64. Lub- bock's Monograph of the Podura?, p. 54. New German Botanical Manuals, p. 115. The Mollusks of Western North America, p. 116. The Zoologi- cal Record for 1871, p. 180. Revision of the Echini, p. 215. Hayden's Geology of the Territories (Illustrated), p. 216. Girard's Insects, p. 221. Solar Physics, p. 222. The liirt.ii of Chemistry, p. 222. North American Moths, p. 223. Surveys west of the 100th Meridian, p. 302. Check List of Coleoptera, p. 303. Dictionary of Elevations of the United States, p. 303. Flora of Colorado, p. 304. Young's Physical Geography, p. 353. Half Hours with the Microscope, p. 354. Field Ornithology, p. 418. The Butterflies of North America, p. 420. Deep Sea Floridan Polyzoa, p. 421. The Publications of the Buffalo Society of Natural Sciences, p. 421. List of North American Noctuid Moths, p. 421. The United States Fish Com- mission Report (Illustrated), p. 493. North American Flies, p. 497. The Unicellular Nature of the Infusoria, p. 498. Siebold's Anatomy of the Invertebrates, p. 499. Recent Publications on Ornithology, p. 541. History of North American Birds, p. 546. The Principles of Science, p. 628. Scammon's Mariue Mammals of the Northwestern Coast and Amer- ican Whale-fishery, p. 632. The Geology of the Lower Amazonas (Illus- trated), p. C73. The original Distinction of the Testicle and Ovary, p. 680. Maps of Wheeler's Expedition, p. £83. Physiology of the Circulation. p. 684. Bulletin of the Cornell University, p. 684. Manual of Metal- lurgy, p. 684. Introduction to General Biology, p. 749. Publications of Wheelers Survey, p. 749. The Geological Survey of Indiana, p. 749.

BOTANY. Irritability of the Leaves of the Sundew, p. 55. Were the Fruits Made for Man. or D 1 M in M ' I ruits? p. 116. The Fertilizaiion of Gen- tians by Humble Bees. pp. ISO. 220. The Desmids. p. 181. I'

m of Abutilou. p. 233. Abnormal Form of Allo- sorus acrostichoides, p. 304. Rumex patientia L. p. 305. The Northern- most flowering Plants, p. 305. The small-flowered Parnassia in Michigan. p. 305. The Fresh-yvater Algae of North America, p. 306. Aplectrum hyemale again, p. 307. Development of Ferns without Fertilization, p. 307. Lobelia syphilitica; v. alba, p. 307. Sex in Plants, p. 355. A New Ribes, p. 358. Periodic Motions of Leaves and Petals, p. 359. Ascent of Sap in the Bark of Trees, p. 360. Botrychium luuaria Swartz, in Michi- gan, p. 360. Absorption of Ammonia by the aerial parts of Plants, p. 360. Geographical Distribution of the Cupuliferae, p. 422. Note on the Influ- ence of Light on the Development of Plants, p. 425. Dr. Beardslee, p. 499. Double Thalictrum, p. 499. Dr. W. G. Farlow, p. 499. Distribu- tion of Alpine Plants, p. 552. Amount of Water contained in the differ- ent parts of a Plant, p. 553. Botany of Wilkes' South Pacific Exploring

Expedition, p. 035. Influence of Forests on llie Rainfall, p. G35. Insec- tivorous Plants, p. C84. Distribution of American Woodlands, p. 687. Adoxa Moschatellina L.. in Iowa. p. C.'.'O. Dispersion of Seeds by shoot- ing them off, p. COO. Botrychium lonaria Sunrtz. p. G91. Yucca fllamen- tosa, p. 749. The Distinctive Features of Apple Flowers, p. 752.

ZOOLOGY.

A New JEgerian Maple Borer, p. 57. A Spinous Fin in a Minnow, p. 58. Capture of a Gigantic Squid at Newfoundland, p. 120. A New ( ?) iEgerian Maple Borer, p. 123. The Anatomy of Worms, p. 124. Entomology in Missouri, p. 181. A New p. 188. Economic Ento-

mology, p. 189. Gig ntic Cuttle-fishes of Newfoundland, p. 22G. Laws . in North American Mammals and Birds, p. 227. The Habits of Polistes and Pelopams, p. 229. Notes on the Plant Lice, p. 231. mong Moths,

p. 234. Organs of Hearing in Insects, p. 23G. Change of Habit, p. 2&7, Spontaneous Generation, p. 238. Discovery of the Water Thrush's Nest in New England, p. 238. Two rare Owls from Arizona, p. 239. Avifauna of Colorado and Wyoming, p. 240. The Ollre-sided flycatcher, p. 240.

Hummingbird new to our Fauna, p. 241. Occurrence of Telea Polyphe- mus in California.— A Correction, p. 243. Identity of our Hydra with European Species, p. 244. Olive-sided Flycatcher, pp. 308, 309. Pet Spiders, p. 3G1. Reproduction of a Fish's Tail, p. 3G3. The Kinglets in New Jersey, p. 304. The Honey-ants. p. 3 Go. Spizella Breweri (?) in Massachusetts, p. 3f'.G. The Chimney Swift: Change in Place of Nesting, p. 3G7. TheMyriopod Cermatia poisonous, p. 308. Blind Crustacea, p. 3C8. Birds and Caterpillars, p. 3G8. A sinistral Helix albolabris, p. 3G8. Note on preserving Insects in Collections, p. 3C9. The Structure of Sponges, p. 42.3. Hacck L Animals,

External Ovaries, p. 427. A Remarkable Beetle Parasite of the Beaver (with cut),' p. 427. Tornaria not a larval Starfish, but the Young of a ' Worm, p. 429. The White-necked Raven, p. 429. Relation of the Ccelen- terates and Echinoderms, p. 430. New Carboniferous Myriopods from Nova Scotia, p. 430. The Discovery of the Origin of the Sting of the Bee, p. 431. Deep Sea Dredglngs in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, p. 481. The Mouth Parts „f the Dragon Fly, p. 432. A New Type of Snakes, p. 432 Notice of a Species of Tern new to the Atlantic Coast of North America, p. 433. The Ruddy Duck, p. 433. Birds New to the Fauna of North America, p. 434. On Some of the Evidences of Life in Great Salt Lake, p. 435. English Sparrows, p. 436. A New Group of Cyprinidas p. 436. A Horned Elotherium, p. 437. The Skunk, p. 437. The Redheaded Wood .ecker in M ;"n . , p. 137. Menobranchns edible, p. 438. New Orus-

velopment of certain Batruchiaus, p. 438. The Paleontologies! History of

Trilobites. etc., as opposed by Barrande, to the Evolution Theory, p. 439. Monograph of the Whale Lice. p. 441. New Species of North American Bird, p. 500. Occurrence of .la pyx in the United States (Illustrated), p. 501. The "Hateful" Grasshopper in New England, p. 502. The Kinglets in New Jersey, p. 502. Zoology in Belgium, p. 503. Recent Researches on Termites and Stiugless Honey-bees, p. 553. The European House Sparrow, p. 556. Fish Culture in the Olden Time, p. 557. The Influence of the Nerves upon the Change of Color of Fish and Crustacea, p. 569. The Cotton Worm, p. 5G2. Larva? of Anopthahnus and Adelops. p. ,">tV.'. New Variety of Bine (im-heak, p. 5»'.:',. Dimorphism in Call Flies, p. 563.

of Anthrenus Larvae, p. 5G4. Larvae of Membraeis serving as milk cattle to a Bee, p. 565. The Snow Goose, p. 636. Transformations ..f our Moths . p. f.'.'i. English Sparrows, p. 602. Monstrosities among Hectics, p. 693. Note on the Synonymy of Telea Polyphemus, p. 753. The Reversion of Thoroughbred Animals, p. 754. Deep Sea Explora- tions, p. 755. The Chestnut sided Warbler, p. 756. Embryology of the see of the Hair Worm, p. 757. A new Order of Hydrozoa, p. 757. Birds of Kansas, p. 757. Ostrich Breeding, p. 757. Case of a Dog nursing a Kitten, p. 758.

GEOLOGY. Return of Professor Marsh's Expedition, p. 58. The N. W. Wyoming Expedition, p. 124. Monkeys in the American Miocene, p. 125. The Genus Protohippus, p. 126. Remains of Land Plants in the Lower Silu- rian, p. 190. The great Lava-flood of the West, p. 244. Deep-sea Ex- plorations, p. 369. The Carboniferous Formation of South America, p. 441. Analogy of the Tertiary Fauna of France to the Temperate Regions of America, p. 442. Small size of the Brain in Tertiary Mammals, p. 503. Deep Sea Soundings, p. 504. Deep sea Temperature in the Antarctic Sea, p. 637. Origin of the Valley of the Rhine, p. 637. Supposed Lower Silurian Land Plants, p. 693. European Fossil Cetacea, p. 694.

The Manufacture of Pottery by t! Berries of Rhamnus croceus as Indian Food, p. 247. A human Skeleton from the Diluvium, p. 370. The Pygmies of Central Africa, p. 443. Trog- lodytes in Alaska, p. 505. Egyptian Archaeology, p. 50G. A true Geogra- phy of the Brain, p. 565. Rate of Growth in Man, p. 567. Extent of the Ancient Civilization of Peru, p. 637. Restoration of Indian Pottery, p. 694. The Earthworks of Fort Ancient, p. 759.

MICROSCOPY. A New Section Cutter (Illustrated), p. 59. A New Form of Microtome . p. 126. Embedding Tissues for Sections, p. 191. Dissecting Embryos, p. 191. Holmau's Siphon Slide (Illustrated), p. 248. Structure

of the Potato, p. 248. Mi U9. Am- cells in a float-

ing Leaf, p. 250. Life of Haeraatozoa, p. 250. Finding the chemical Focus in Photomicrography, p. 251. A Spherical Diaphragm, p. 252. Leaf Sections, p. 252. Another Erector, p. 252. Cements, p. 252. Auto- microscopy, p. 253. Measuring the growth-rate of Plants, p. 253. A re- volving Amplifier, p. 253. Quieting Frogs, p. 253. On the Structure of Diatoms, p. 309. Unmounted Objects, p. 316. Arranging Diatomaceaj (Illustrated), p. 371. Histology, p. 373. Morphology of the Saproleg- niei, p. 374. Section Cutters, p. 375. Lecture Illustrations of Micro- scopic Objects, p. 375. Podura Scales, p. 376. Lengthened immersion Tube, p. 376. Automatic Turntable, p. 376. Origin of Blood Corpuscles, p. 376. Substitute for the Camera lucida, p. 377. Amphiplem in dots, p. 443. On Circulatory Movements in Vaucheria, p. 444. Im- provements in Insect Mounting, p. 507. Measuring Angular Apertures, p. 508. Cataloguing Microscopic Specimens, p. 509. Sand-blast Cells, p. iun of Stain- ing to Pathology, p. 511. New Rotating Microscope, p 567. Mounting Diatoms, p. 5G8. Blood Crystals, p. 568. Tolles' New Immersion l-6th, p. 56*. Splueraphides in Tea Leaves, p. 638. New Microscopical Societies, p. 638. Appearance of the Blood in Melanosis, p. 638. Achromatic Boll's Eye Condenser, p. 638. Embedding Tissues, p. 0:J!>. Glycerine Mounting, p. 639. Beaded Silica Films, p. 696. Cell-culture in the Study of Fungi. p. 697. Handling Diatoms, p. 697. Reproduction of Desmids, p. 698. Angular Apertures, p. 698. A Finder for Microscopes with plain staue, p. 700. The Right-angled Prism as a substitute for the Mirror for trans- mitted light, p. 700. Apparatus for giving pressure to objects while dry- ing, p. 700. The new Type Plate, p. 701. Fixing Diatoms, p. 701. The Podura Scale, p. 702. Distribution of the Rhizopods, p. 761.

Notes.— Pages 62, 128, 191, 253, 316, 377, 445, 511, 569, 639, 702, 762.

Exchanges. Pages 256, 448.

LIST OF PLATES.

LIST OF WOOD-CVTS.

Embryo of I.am.iji

W-}

AMERICAN NATURALIST.

Vol. VIII. -JANUARY, 1874. -No. 1.

^vu.i.v and .-i^cijilly l>ala, is a sort of botanical Mecca, and, indeed, no one who has occasion to travel in the north of Europe would willingly refrain from veiling the tomb of Linnams.

I reached this country by way of Copenhagen, which fine city, as well as Hamburg I was obliged to hurry through, taking merely a glimpse of the Botanical and Zoological Gardens. From Copenhagen I crossed over to Malmoe in Sweden, and took the train to the old university town of Lund, where the distinguished algologist, Agardh, is professor, as was his father before him. The town is, indeed, old and primitive: and from the astonishment of the natives one would suppose that I was the first American ever

A pretty, but to me decidedly unintelligible chamber-maid

managed after a while to understand that I wanted a room Unfortunately, there was no lock to the door, and *

2 NOTES FROM THE JOURNAL OF A BOTANIST IN EUROPE.

which, and in the- entries, juniper twigs were spread, a universal custom in Sweden. I found the professor at home and expecting me. In personal appearance he is tall, and, as they say, aristo- cratic looking (in fact he is called "Lord Agardh" by the stu- dents) ; he has bright twinkling eyes and a white mustache. He speaks and writes English remarkably well. He is a member of the Reichstag, and so goes to Stockholm in the winter. His herba- rium, with the exception of the largest species, is in his private

botanic

The al g

ardcii

;r specin

,,.'.',, ;'

e kept ;

it the boil of the 6f

ding in t!

:ie new I had

pre!

uded by

an inv

itation

to take a {

■lass of (

Cognac

and so

da-wi:

iter,

a favorit

e bevc

srage L

a this regi

ion. My

valise

being 1

.mpat

ked,

we set t

o wort

;. Am

ongst the

lot were i

several

plants

ome entirely ne

larly ai

nongst my

Oregon

and U:

iliiorni:

l species ; 1

nit this is

hardly

a prop<

« tin

10 to

notice new species.

lie seeme<

larticu-

larly interes

ted ii

\ a specii

nen of

Pikm

, which p

lant he

had ne

ver sv.

Ithough

he had

liimsel

f added ot

>ers to

the gei

ACV

tonlaria

from (

Jregon,

supposed 1

A- Agard

h to he

new, I

have

since

discovei

■ed, fro

m an e

xauiliiatioii

of the Hi

ilirecht

collect:

i St.

Petersbi

irg, to

be a

ubiatinu of

Kuprecl

it, still

unpubl

Uhed

The

ent of

tion of

Prot

Agardh.

, assist

ant Pr

lessor An

■schoug, 1

iephew

German, h by way of C

Ionia, Maci

■ocystis.

Du

rviltoa, etc., several

set long,

■iy

the only

getting any i

dea how

MR']

i plants really look.

lies in the 1;

irge plait

i of

Sarnia. with mountains

visible in

.ance. This

is decidedly

the most fertile part

of

Sweden.

grain crop

is very h

irgv

. I made an excurs

with Dr.

sens. The r

called \'

ami

lsang, made classic 1 knolls were very b.

die visits tii'ul with

rathe!

_

ney, particularly

.ling

in <;<

irmany.

The bo

tanistsof

the

vaeati

on. So, :

iftur vis

siting the

, alt]

lough

good, are

not rei

nnrkable,

O til

is pict

uresque ar

id agree

'able city

to Up

beai

itifuib

y situated

. but is

in most

ii Li

md.

The numb

er of st

udeuts is

as o

;reat a

is at Lun<

1. Mai

ay of the

obli

ged t

o spend t

he vac.

ations in

at t

he coi

npletion of their

studies.

- the

nations or provi

rices of

Sweden.

ouse

, that

of the S

tockh..;

in-nation

fifteen hundred, tin students are poor Upsala, only return: They are divided ac.

being the finest. Each nation has also a lot and monument in the cemetery, and most of the students who die at Upsala are buried there, as it is a long journey to some of the provinces. In fact, Americans who judge of European distances from Great Britain and Germany are astonished at the size of Norway and Sweden. Professor Schiibler of Chriatiania told me that it was half as far

from Christiania to the northernmost point of Norway as from Christiania to Rome.

On my arrival I called at once on the venerable Professor Fries. I found him at home, surrounded by his children and grand- children, assembled to celebrate bis seventy-eighth birthday. Only one of his family was absent, a son who lives in Florida. He welcomed me warmly, and regretted that he was too feeble to show me Upsala. He spoke German, but so slowly that it was difficult to follow him. His daughters spoke English ; the youngest, who is unmarried, very well. He wears the traditional long black coat and skull-cap, and has the venerable appearance and benign ex- pression, which is shown in the photograph of himself and the amiable Madame Fries, which I remember in Professor Gray's collection. Professor Fries directed me to the college building

my escort in Upsala. The way to the laboratory was through very classic grounds. Just back of the castle is the Library, Car- favorite wall [shed professors. Lack of the library is a large grove with a cemetery in which are buried Wahl- enberg and Thunberg. In the grove and cemetery are a number of Runic monuments, and through the centre of the grove runs a broad avenue to the laboratory, in the stem i Mory of which sev- eral of the professors have suites of rooms. Not finding Professor Fries at home 1 calle i again the next morning.

The younger Professor Theodore Fries, stout and robust, and not the least like his father in personal appearance, kindly offered to be my guide in the city. The situation of I'psala is bleak and even dismal, a single hill on which stands the cathedral, castle and university buildings, in the midst of a wide plain. The cathedral, an ancient brick structure, has no great claims to beauty, but _ on account of the tombs and

relics contained in it. The torn!) of Gustav Vasa is the lion of the place, but to all naturalists the tomb of Linnaeus, of black

by the inhabitants : back of which, and

this way the more valuable mementoes <>t' Linna-us are preserved

riurn building is a marble statue of the father of botany, in a s tting posture, by Bystrom. The expression of the face is ex- tremely bei e Linnseos,

if we are to trust the portrait at Stockholm, which was considered an excellent likelier. Professor Aiv-choug. best known by his algological writings, resides close to the garden. lie is a rather ik-set man, and in his method of study is decidedly Ger- man. His collection of microscopic preparations of algae is large, and the preparations are beautifully mounted.

Linnaeus' city house, at the old Botanic (Jarden. is still to be seen, nearly unaltered, but it contains no relics of its d owner. There are some, however, at his country house at Ham- 's -.■..•:■::.■- .'- '.. ' .■ : 'a I'.'-:' .. . ' '.■ ' : ' : : : '■ - : ._ '•' ■■)' :: '•' ':'■ h

contained his herbarium and museum. A good idea of these and of all the souvenirs of Linnaeus is to be had from a series of fif- teen small photographs, with an accompanying sheet of letter press, which were published a few years ago, and are still on sale.

journals, is not expensive, and could readily be obtained, I pre- sume, by thoso who would be interested in these memorials. A visit to Upsala is incomplete without an excursion to the tombs of Thor, Frei and Odin, three mounds a short distance from the town. To make the scene more impressive, the Swedish urchins roll over and over down the mounds for a slight gratuity. At a. restaurant near by, one is also expected to drink mead out of horns mounted with silver and inscribed with the names of princes and nobles who drank heavily from them in days of yore.

ORNITHOLOGICAL NOTES Flo' >U THE SOCTI

I. SOUTH CAROLINA. The town of Aiken is situated in the dry, sandy "Pine Barrens" of southern South Carolina. It is a great resort for invalids (es- pecially for those suffering from pulmonary diseases), the climate being dry and healthful. It is the highest point on the Charles- ton railroad, having an altitude of over six hundred feet, and there

miles west of the town.

bright green lizards (Anolius Carolinensis) , which, like the cha- meleon, possess the \> - ir color to a greenish- yellow and a dark reddish-brown. There is also another species

they generally take

i ■■ ■■ -

formed species of Co

about three-quarters

out of whi

Now, :

ehirp above my head, and. looking up. saw a small bird on the top of one of the tallest pine trees : it was too high to be recog-

creeper (Jfawtilhi carlo) was seen on the 18th, from which time afterwards it was common. A few Maryland yellow-throats (Geo- thl ii» ■>■ tn\-h>is) arri\ ed on the 31st, but were not numerous. The hermit thrush ( Tnrdns PaUasil) and the robin (Planesticus mirjra- torius) were quite plentiful when I arrived. Mocking birds {Mi-

after which time they -fairly filled the air with their rich medley of inexhaustibly varied notes, the singers leaping in restless ecstasy from branch to branch, with drooping wings and spread

but one cat-bird (Galeoscoptes Carolinrnxls) and that was on the 4th of April ; the brown thrush or long-tailed thrasher (Harpo- rhynchus rufus) was very common on and after March 19th.

I shot a pewee or phcebe bird (Sayornis fuscus) on the 15th, after which time they were often seen. Our common kingbird, or beebird (Tyranmis CaroUnensis) arrived on the 4th of April, when it inn se of all the

other species, both large and small, especially the former. On the 22d, I shot one blue-headed vireo ( Vireo solitarius). which was the only one seen; the white-eyed vireo ( V. Noveboracensis), how- ever, was quite common on and after the 27th. The great

8 ORNITHOLOGICAL NOTES FROM THE SOUTH.

wren (Thryothorus Ludovicianus), though a resident, was first ob- served about the 27th, after which time it- pleasant song was often heard. The bine-gray gnatcatchers (Polioptila ccerulea) arrived on the 21st, and soon became very common; the ruby-crowned kinglets (Regulus calendula) appeared on the same day, and were equally numerous. Rough-winged swallows {Stelgidopteryx serri- pennis), in large numbers, arrived about the 22d. Hawks of all kinds were rare; one fish hawk (Pandion Carolinensis) was ob- served at Langley's Pom! eight miles below here, and occasionally a Buteo was seen sailing above Aiken, but too high for the spe- cies to be determined. Bluebirds {fiHalia stalls) were quite plenti- ful and were probably resident ; they commenced nesting about the 1st of April, as did the blue jays and Carolina chickadees. I shot one loggerhead shrike (Cthtrio Litdociciinms) ; this species was quite rare. The common yellow bird (Chrysomitris tnstis) was occasionally met with, and the pine finch (C. pinus) was very abundant, Chipping sparrows (Spizella social is) were verv plenti-

spiza melodia). white-throated sparrows (Zoindr'i'-hia (dbicollis), black or common snowbirds (J,,,,,-,, /,/^,„„//.s). and the ba\ -\\ in-ed bunting (Pooecetes gramineus).

The following is a list of the birds observed at Aiken, South Carolina, between March 14th and April 5th, 1873.

>\S IN WESTERN* '

BOTANICAL Oi;sKKVATIOX> IX WKSTK1LX WYnMIXC

. V. A. Jones into Northwestern "Wyoming during the past season 1873), the botanical results have proved of such unexpected in- erest that I have obtai in Jones to

a.1 features if the region passed over, with notices of rare plants and descrip- ions of new species collected on the route.

Fort Bridge k to Camp Brown. Leaving the point of rendez- OOfl at Fort Bridger on the 12th of June, our route followed a

10 BOTANICAL OBSERVATIONS

northeasterly course over Green River basin, thence skirting along the southern spurs of the Wind River range. The main conti- nental divide was crossed at South Pass. From this point fol- lowing a more direct northerly course we reached Camp Brown in the Wind River valley on July 1st.

The chief botanical interest on this portion of our route was comprised in the many suggestive associations with the early dis- coveries of Xuttall nearly forty years previous. Though this route has been repeatedly traversed by exploring parlies, lying in fact on the well beaten track of western emigrant travel pre- vious to the construction of the Pacific Railroad, not a few of the plants then collected and described have remained up to this time desiderata in herbaria.

Unusually copious spring rains previous to our journey had freshened the vegetation of these usually arid tracts, so that our

laden wagon train, were enlivened (at least to the botanist) by

Cleome aurea Hook., Cahjptridium roseum S. Wat-son, Oenothera Andina^Sutt, (Enothem xeapnidea Xutt., Astragal hx da/rri Gray, Astragalus j.n-tna Gray. Cho „,/,■//* Ih^giasii II. & A., Plantago Patognnhv Jaoq., Oilia inroiispiena Dougl.. ami Q.njtheca dendro- idea Xutt. In the moist grassy valley of Little Sandy were also found quite abundantly Capsella divaricata Walp. and Geatiam hv. in Hi's Stew, heretofore overlooked by collectors in this region. Of perennial plants, serving somewhat to relieve the prevalent ih of Arti'in isia. Tetmdiimia and Li nnsvris.

t is populai

equally forbidding .Chenopod

'arenas Douo\., A. jnmnus \„,

nd A.Jtavus Xutt., the former nd the latter quite abundant ourses, at the foot of steep claj On gravelly knolls adjoining

Nutt. is a showy asteroid plant with large white flowers, disposed

This plant, according to Dr. Gray, is closely allied to or perhaps identical with the Xtjlorhiza vMosa Nutt. {Aster Xylorlnza Torr. & Gray). In view of the discrepancy in many respects between this plant and that described by Nuttall, Dr. Gray has thought

ationof >even thousand leet above the -ea level, from the Pacific

vegetation partaking of a sub-alpine character. This district

ml lofty hills in the central range of the Rocky Mountains." Here accordingly we again come within the range of these early iscoveries in re-collecting such choice plants as Draba Alpha L.,

>xytropislagopusXxrtt.. and Phlox hryoides Nutt. Here also we meet for the first time, probably near its south- astern limits, the interesting Lewisia redivim Pursh. This

BOTANICAL OBSERVATIONS ]

becomes much more abundant further no

valley, and we

> were thus

afforded an opp

plant through

its flowcrir.

ig and fruiting

the latter par

t of June to

i the middle of ,

period its mat

ured capsule

s are detached a

no trace of t

he plant ex.

posed to view, t

develops the

rosette of r

adical leaves, bj

guided in proc

airing their i

applies of this

root. Recent

attempts It:

ive been made

plant into our

gardens, wl:

icre it would pre

Shrubbery i

is here represented mainly

pZsiJitlL

SaD(ir^

<be*cereum~Doik

in apparently

.calities, for the

the mountain

range fartlu

Jr south in Col<

Torr., Cercoca

rpus parvifi

dins Nutt., or ,h

& Gray.

The scanty

pine growt

h includes chief1

with an occasi

onal clump <

A Abies Douglai

Vfrginiana L.

The southe

astern spurs

of the Wind Ri

cession of ste

ep. grassy >

lopes agreeably

clad ridges.

Through nu

mberless chamie

collect their si

jmmer tribu

to the lower v

alleys thrum

lh deep gorges, .

faces the stru

cture and s

uccession of tin

clined, rocky

strata. Th

e lower undulat

natural divide

■s between t

he numerous w

tl e n 11

ey of Wind

senting smool

h tabled su

nunits. bedded

spersed with %

fiiilv colored

are the brigl

it golden-V(

.■bow heads of

Nutt., and Be

fhnmorlrjf

$agittata Nutt.,

istic of thi Nutt., Are

grassy expanses of the higher elevations, reaching an altitude of nine thousand feet above the sea level, reveal a distinctly subal- pine vegetation. We accordingly here encounter such well known forms as Saxifraga nivalis L., Eritrichium aretioides DC., Pole-

mo nhon confertum Gray, Lloyd ia scroti no. Reich., while appar- ently more distinctly characteristic of this particular range we

Eaton and Bupleuram ranunculoides L.

In the wooded districts Pinus jh.riUs is irregularly mingled with Pinus ponderosa and Abie* Douglasii, while Pinus contorta forms the almost exclusive growth of the interior ridges and alpine valleys. After passing the first -cries of steep ridges, which gen- eral! v ores 1;S the main axis of the range, the interior valleys are spread out in the form of irregular basins, bordered by deep pine woods. Within these timbered

bogs occupied by a close, clumpy growth of willows. Through

in the early summer months, these meadows frequently conceal

treacherous bogs greatly impeding travel, while small ponds and occasional permanent lakes are not infrequent. In this variety of surface exposure, limited in every direction by irregular, rocky ridges, variously set off with extensive snow drifts, we have all the conditions of a most attractive mountain flora.

following plant's \-Draba Alpina L., Lupinus ctespitosus Nutt., Jledy irum boreah Nutt., Astroyolus AJpinus L., Oxytropis cam- pest ris L., Oxytropis ciscida Nutt.? (or a species near it), Sedum stenopetalum Ph., Sedum rhodanthum Gray, Aciindla grandiflora

14 ANIMAL LIFE OF THE CUTAM

T. & G., Antennaria dioica L., Senecio lug- ,,s Rich., K< drain glauca L.. .' Bcnth., 3Lrt<-nsia paniadata

Dulles., ( i ( . >, I / / n I . Prim-

ula Purri/i Gray, Gantiana humilis Stew, Phaadio. sericea Gray.

the high mountain district between the Big-IIorn and Yellowstone basins will be noticed.

ANIMAL LIFE OF THE CUYAMACA M()l'NTAI>

When collecting at San Diego 11:

a1 the severe Hoods <>["

the roads into ihc mountains, thai

M..-\

My late trip throm

that the animals, like

and mostly of norther

i'rom Lowe

svhile the lower classes frequently

heard formerly of long-tailed spotted eats being found in these

Cayoti-s (Caaisi it cms) are scarce, and I heard nothing of foxes.

Of Rodents, the almost universal Sp,,nnnphiJus Deecheyi was so

scarce in the mountains, that 1 saw only two, both near streams at

four thousand feet altitude. Tiny arc, however, common near

two rainy year*, limes and raUuts may then be seen by hun- dreds at a time, and the California quail as well as other resident

abundant. Two very <\vy years preceded this, and CC C[ ci tly

ANIMAL LIFE OF THE CUT AM AC A MOUNTAINS.

Indian Corn (Zea Mays) is sexn mule and female flowers are normally on different parts of the same plant. Occasionally, however, the female flowers appear among

flowers appear on the spike (ear) among the female flowers, and still more rarely, they are hermaphroditic.

Other observers reverse the order of rarity of these anomalies and say that "male flowers sometimes appear amongst the female flowers, and Mr. J. Scott lias lately observed the rarer case of female flowers on a true male panicle, and likewise hermaphrodite flowers."*

The writer collected and examined nearly a hundred specimens of these anomalies (female flowers among the males), during the last autumn (1872) with a view of determining the between the proportion or excess of either soxnol dement: and the condition of development of the plants bearing such anoi i; !< is flowers.

The stalks bearing female flowers among the males were almost without exception •• .s»<7,v,\s." that is. branches coming off from the main -talks at the nodes among the adventitious roots just below the surface of the ground. The junction of one of these "suck- ers" with the-stalk on which it is a parasite, so to speak, is greatly constricted, and the point of attachment is scarcely more than an eighth of an inch across. There are few, if any, serviceable ad- ventitious roots to these suckers, so the stalk derives its nourish- ment wholly from the trunfe to irhicl il is joined, and as a conse- quence such stalks are short, slim and pale in color, having abridged internodes, or in other words, they a re undeveloped. A wet season, injury to the main stalk, shady locations and the borders of fields, seem to favor their production.

From what has been brought forward, if wo il 1 api -ay as if teient nutrition, from

n:.1 J,-/ ,/ •, (1 >,',j ,i nf and re.shxu'n' I vrohitian of ie sexual organs.

There were many stalks to be found, boarin'j; male flowers (•■ tas- 3ls") alone in the normal position (terminal), apparently perfect and development, but no stalks are to he found earing a complete spike (ear) of perfect female flowers alone, ven when terminal. Such spikes (ears) are always defective, \ tilled with grains, even when no male owers are present.

tassel in the norma! p , lU\ ;1 sign of a place

for a female flower.

When the ear (femal , bears male (lowers.

they are usually terminal on the cob, though sometimes they may be on any other part of the ear, even a single male flower among the closely crowded grains (females). Mr. Scott, as al- ready mentioned, speaks of having found even hermaphrodite flowers, which would naturally appear to be much more rare among dioecious plants than among the monoecious, for the latter condition would appear to stand between the dioecious and the '< "litic.

Great numbers of corn plants bear male flowers only, while none are female alone, and wherever they approach the latter con- dition, the spike (ear) of female flowers is terminal. These exo I li- the normal kind (monoecious) and arc certainly more rank and vigorous in their growth than those plants which bear principally female flowers on the terminal nail of the ohm! which latter, as

this showing if appears that in proportion to the parlici- l- piviloininaiico of the female element, just in that propor-

,nch of the panicle b nrhich most

I'lnhU'il what nonafous mentions as a variety calleil C'y-

1 shape, bearing corn only on one side (the outer) c

22 ORIGIN OF SEX.

emulation of the ovules from which such stalks wore produced. This point might be practically tested by planting a single stalk in a field far removed from any other corn. The tassel should be cut off as often as required to prevent the male flowers from form- ing, then the pollen from another plant should be applied to the female flower at the latest moment when fecundation is possible. By this method we should expect to get the largest possible pro- portion of exclusively male-generating grains. To get the largest possible proportion of female-producing grains, the female flower should be fecundated at the earliest possible moment— earlier than nature does it. The grains produced under these circumstances would, when planted, give the largest and the smallest proportion of exclusively male or female plants.

It would be well to determine whether the grains near the tip, in the middle, or near the base of the ear, gave the largest pro- portion of exclusively male-producing grains. The follow ing will

Metzger* has observed that the effect of cli as cultivated in Germany, causes "the lower keep to their proper form, but the upper se

consist , .j

though the converse

Schleiden, Braun, Ci

tions on the proporth

seeds taken from dii

that the seed taken from the lower, more mature,

developed parts of the plant gave a much lars

male-producing seed, than stv.l taken from the u]

lent, less mature, less highly developed parts.

branches gave a larger proportion of males than the upper. I

Concerning the size of the seeds, he says that the largest and smallest gave a predo of the mean size gave more especially females.

The carefully made observations of Mr. Thomas Mcehan of

Cermantown. Philadelphia Co.. i'enn.. are singularly in harmony with those of Mr. Girou and others, though, I believe, made en- tirely independently of a knowledge of the latter.

Mr. Meehant has observed that in several plants of the order Cupulifene, and he believes in all of them, "we find the female flowers only on the strongest young growths, and only at or near the apex of the first great wave of spring growth, as if it were the culmination of a great vegetative effort which produced them, instead of a decline as in the male."

fifth year, when vitality in the spur is nearly exhausted, do male

Mr. David Moore, in his morphology of Nepenthes,* says that

"vigor and healthiness increase the female line of vital force in

opraent." When growth has ceased, maturity and complete de- velopment are accomplished, and the business of reproduction exclusively occupies the plant.

From all this it appears then, that while the plant is mostly oc-

is,- in other words, undeveloped, does it'hear the largest proportion

ough study of the subject, that the -renter the fecundity, ii gle births, the larger the proportion of male chihlren,\'in< versa. I have also said that the benettimj; of males is a 1 role in the reproductive act of the mother than the be<retti females ; while the begetting of females on the