At '



CaIUS Suetonius Tranquillus, whofe Hiftory is here tranflated, was the Son of ^ Roman Knight, and enjoyed for fome time the place of Secretary to the Emperor Hadrian ; but was af- terwards difmilTed from the Court, for behaving difrefpe^tfully to the Emprefs Sabina. In his Retitement he compofed feveral hiftorical Works, of which the Lives of the Firft Twelve Caefars are the only ’One now extant. As a Writer, he comprehends in his Charafter a Mix- ture of good Qualities and Blemiflies. In the Arrangement of his Subje£l:,he is peculiarly me- thodical, his Style is plain and unaffected, and his Narrative every where appears to be in the higheft degree faithful.

V' ...

Of two Kinds of Blemifhes, for which he is confpicuous. One, namely, his minute Recital of Omens, is a Fault of the Times in which he lived, rather than any particular Superftition in Himfelf : for the Other, which is Indelicacy of Expreffion, on many OCcafions, he has too juftly incurred the Cenfure, of having written the Lives of the Caefars with a Degree of Licentiouf- nefs equal to that of their own ConduCt. But thofe who are acquainted with the Language of this Author, will obferve, that his objeClionable Expreffions have been foftened, and, in one or two places, neceffarily fuppreffed, in the Tranf- lation.

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Let it however be acknowledged, that a Ver- fion of Suetonius, though a valuable Hiftorian, was only a fecondary Objefl with the prefent Tranflator, whofe principal Defign was, to ex- amine the State of Literature amongfl the Ro- mans, with greater Care and Precifion than has hitherto ever been attempted. Almoft all the Latin Claffic Writers flouriflied in the Periods which form the Subject of Suetonius’s Hiftory ^ and a Tranflation of it, therefore, feemed a pro- per Vehicle for conducting fuch an Enquiry.

Could a Difplay of the Merits and DefeCts of ^ thofe celebrated Writers, upon a larger Scale, have been rendered compatible both with the Gratification of Curiofity, and public Conveni- ence, it was the Author’s With, to have adopted a more extenfive Plan ; but it feemed more ad- vifable, on thofe Accounts, to contrad the Detail, and reftrain within narrower Limits the Scope of critical Obfervation.

In the Chronological View now exhibited of the Subject, he has endeavored not only to form a juft Eftimate of Roman Literature, and afcer- tain the Caufes which carried it to fuch a Degree of Perfection ; but to elucidate the State of Go- vernment, and the Progrcfs of Manners, in thofe "i'imes. He has, likewife, it is prefumed, cor- rected various Mifreprefentations of Biographers, and Errors of Commentators.





Divus Julius Ciefar, i

Review of Government and Literature, 70

D. 06i:avius Ciefar Auguilus, ^ 94

Review of Government and Literature, 185

Tiberius Nero Csefar, ^ 247

Review of Government and Literature, 304

Caius Csefar Caligula, ^ 321

Review of Government, 370

Tiberius Claudius Drufus Csefar, 374

Review of Government, 415

Nero Claudius Csefar, - 423

Reviev/ of Government and Literature, 474

Sergius Sulpicius Galba, 500

Review of his Chara£f er, 51 S

M. Salvius Otho, 519

Review of his Condud, ^ 531

: A Vitellius,

I N D E jj.


A. Vitellius, 532

Review of his Charadler and Conduct, 547

Titus Flavius Vefpafianus, 549

/ Review of Government and Literature, 568

Titus Flavius Vefpafianus Auguftus, 573

Review of Government and Literature, 581

Titus Flavius Domitianus, . 589

Review of Government and Literature^ 6ii




To WRITERS and fome other Perfons, particularly mentioned in the Review,

Ivivius Andronicus,









Julius Ciefar,



M. Tullius Cicero,


M. Terentius Varro,


C. Valerius Catullus,


T0 Lucretius Carus,

M. Vipfanlus Agrippa,


C. Cilnius Mecsenas,


C. Crifpus Salluftius,


Cornelius Nepos,



Titus Livius, r-


P. Virgilius Alaro,


Q^Horatius Flaccus,


P. Ovidius Nafo,



Albius Tibullus,


S. Aurelius Propertius,


Cn. Cornelius Gallus,







Livia' Dru{illa.>



^lius Sejanus,


M. Velleius Paterculus,


Valerius Maximus,




C. Julius Hyginus,



A. Cornelius Celfus,


Apicius Coelius,




Valeria Meflalina,



Julia Agrippina,


L. Annseus Seneca,


T. Petronius Arbiter,


M. Annseus Lucanus,


Aulus Perfius Flaccus,



C. Valerius Flaccus,


C. Plinius Secundus,


M. Fabius Quintilianus,


D. Junius Juvenalis,


M. Papinius Statius,


M.' Valerius Martialis,






I. Julius Caefar, at the deceafe of his father, had not completed the fixteenth year of his age. Next year? he was eledled Flamen Dialis f, or prieft of Jupiter ; when repudiating Coffiitia, who was only of an equeflrian fa-


The hyperbolical epithet of Divus, the Di'vine^ had for- merly been conferred upon Romulus, through the policy of the Patricians, to obviate a fufpicion entertained by the people, that the king had been violently taken off* by a con- fpiracy of that Order; and political circumftances again con- curred with popular fuperftition to revive the pofthumous adulation, in the perfon of Julius Caefar. It is remarkable in the hiftory of a nation fo j'ealous of public liberty, that in both inftances, they bellowed the moll extravagant mark of human veneration upon men who owed their fate refpec- lively to the introduflion of arbitrary power : firll, in the founder of the Roman monarchy, and next, in the fubverter of the republic. Both inllances, however, ferve to Con- firm the manner in which many of the pagan deities derived their origin in the fabulous ages.

The place of Flamen Dialis was an office of great dignity, butTubjeded to many rellriclions. The perfon who held -it could not ride on horfeback, nor llay one night without the city. His wife was likewife under particular rellridlionsj and could not be divorced. If file died, the Flamen refign- ed his office, becaufe there were certain facred rites which


mily, but extremely opulent, and to whom he had been contradled during his minority, he married Cornelia, the daughter of Cinna, who %vas four times Conful. From this lady, who fbon after bore him a daughter, named Julia, all the efforts of the Didfator Sylla could not in- duce him to part. On which account he was puniffied with the lofs of his facerdotal office, the fortune which he had' acquired by marriage, and the eftate of his an- ceftors. Being, befides, confidered as an enemy to the exifting government, he was obliged to abfeond ; and, though then greatly indifpofed wdth an intermitting fever, to change his quarters almoft every night ; not without the expence, at the fame time, of redeeming himfelf from the hands of thofe who were fent to apprehend him ; un- til, by the interceffion of the Veffal virgins of Mamer- cus

he could not perform without her affiftance. Befides other marks of diftindion, he wore a purple robe called Laena, and a copical cap, called Apex.

* The Veftal virgins, upon their inftitution by Numa, were four in number ; but two were added by Tarquinius Prifeus, from whofe time they continued ever after to be fix. Their employment was to keep the facred fire always burn- ing. They watched it in the night-time alternately ; and v/hoever allowed it to go out, was fcourged by the Pontifex Maximus. This accident was always efteemed ominous, and expiated ,by offering extraordinary facrifices. The fire, when thus extinguifiied,' was lighted up again, not from an- other fire, but from the rays of the fun ; in which manner it was renewed every year upon the firft of March, that be- ing anciently the day when the year commenced. Amonglt the honors and privileges enjoyed by the Veftais, they could abfolve a criminal from punifliment, if they met him ac- cidentally ; and their interpofition, upon ail occafions, was greatly refpected. But the violation of their vow of chaftity



cus ^mllius, and Aurelius Cotta, the two latter of whom were allied to him by marriage, he at laft obtained a par- don. It is certain, that Sylla, when he yielded to the importunity of Caefar’s friends, broke forth into the fol- lowing exclamation, whether from a divine impulfe up- on his mind, or only the refultofhis ownfagacity ‘‘ Ye Hiall have your defircj and are at liberty to take hiiri amongd; you ; but know that the perfon wdiorn ye are fo anxious to fave, will, one time or other, prove the de- firuc^tion of the nobility which ye have affifled me to pro- te61: : for, believe mej there are many Marius’s in that Csefar.”

II. His firll: appointment in the military fervice, was in the wars of Afia, under the command of M. Thermus the Prsetor. Being fent by this general into Bithynia to bring thence a fleet, he loitered fo long in die court of Nicomedes, as to give occafion to a report of a criminal intercourfe betwixt him and that prince ; which received additional credit from his hafey return to Bithynia, under

was pimifhed with peculiar feverity. The. unfortunate fe- male was buried alive, with funeral folemnities, in a place called the Campus Sceleratus; and her paramour was fcourg- ed to death in the Forum.

f Bithynia, called anciently Bebricia, is a country of the peninfula of Afia, now called Afia Minor. It was bound- ed on the fouth by the river Rhyndacus and mount Olym- pus ; on the wefl by the Bofporus Thracius, and a part of the Propontis ; and on the north by the Euxine fea. Its boundaries towards the eafl are not clearly ascertained, Stra- bo, Pliny, and Ptolemy diifering from each other on the fub- ject. It is however generally recommended as a rich and fruitful country ; the Greek geographers call it the greateji and the bej},

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the pretext of recovering a debt due to a freed-man his client. During the courfe of the Afiatic expedition, his condudl was in other refpe^ts irrepiehenfible ; and upon the taking of Mitylene ^ by llorm?‘he was ..prefentcd by Thermus with the civic crown f.


III. He fervcd likewife in Cilicia J , under Servilius Ifauricus, but fp,r a fhort time. For upon receiving ad- vice of Sylla’s death, in the hope of attaining an afcen-

* Mitylene was a city of the ifiand Lefbos, famous for the ftudy of phiiofophy and eloquence. According to Pliny, it remained a free city and in power one thoufand five hundred years. It fuffered much in the^Peloponnefiari^war from the Athenians, and in the Mithridatic from the Romans, by whom it was taken and dellroyed. But it foon rofe again, having recovered its ancient liberty by the favor of Pom- pey ; and was afterwards much adorned by Trajan, who added to it the fplendor of his own name. This was the country of Pittacus, one of the feven wife men of Greece, as well as of Alcseus and Sappho. The natives fiiowed a par- ticular tafie for poetry, and had, as Plutarch informs us, Bated times for the celebration of poetical contefts.

f The Corona Civica was made of oak-leaves, and given to him who had faved the life of a citizen. The perfon who received it, wore it at public fpe6Iacles, and fat next the fe- nators. When he entered, the audience rofe up, as a mark of refpeft.

X A very extenfive country of Hither Afia ; lying be- tween Pamphylia to the weft, mount Taurus and Amanus to the north, Syria to the eaft, and the Mediterranean to the fouth. It was divided into Afpera^ the rough or mountain- ous ; and Campeflris, the level or champaign Cilicia. It was anciently famous for faffron ; and hair-cloth, called by the Romans Cilicium^ was the manufadture of this country.




dency from a new commotion, which w'as attempted by M. Lepidus, he returned with all fpeed to Rome. Dif~ truhing however the abilities of that perfonage, and find- ing the times lefs favorable for the execution of fuch a projedl than there feemed reafon at firft to imagine, he abandoned all thoughts of embracing the intended confede- racy, though the mofl; tempting offers were made him to engage his concurrence.

IV. Soon after the re-eftablifhment of public tran- quillity, he preferred a charge of extortion againft Cor- nelius Dolabella, a man of confular dignity, and who had obtained the honor of a triumph. But this impeachment terminating in the acquittal of the accufed, he refolved to retire to Rhodes *, with the view not only of avoiding the public odium incurred by the charge, but of profe- cuting his ftudies with greater advantage, under Apol- lonius, the fon of Molon, at that time the moft celebrat- ed inafier of rhetoric. While on his voyage thither, in the winter feafon, he was taken by pirates near the iiland of Pharinacufa ; with whom he continued, not

* A famous city in an ifland of the fame name, adjoining to the coaft of Caria. Here was faid to be anciently a huge flatiie of the Sun, called Coloffus; but fome are of opinion, that the account delivered of it is fabulous. The Rhodians were celebrated not only for fkill in naval affairs, but for learning, philofophy, and eloquence. During the latter periods of the Roman republic, and under fome of the emperors, many reforted thither for the purpofe of pro- fecuting their ftudies ; and it likewife became a place of retreat to difeontented Romans. -Solinus informs us, that in this ifland, the fky was feldom fo overcafl; but that the fun might be feen; whence probably it obtained amongfl the 'poets the epithet Clara,

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without feeling the utmoft indignation, during almoft weeks ; his only attendants being one phyfician, and two valets. For his other fervants, as well as the friends who accompanied him, he had immediately difpatched to raife money for his ranfom. Upon the payment of fifty talents he was fet adiore ; when after the moft dili- gent exertion to procure fome fliips, he came up with the pirates, and making them all prjfoners, inflicted upon - them the punifhment with which he had often jocofely threatened them during his detention. Mithridates was at that time carrying devaflation into the neighboring countries ; and Caefar, on his arrival at Rhodes, that he might not appear to difregard the danger which menaced * the allies of Rome, paflfed over into Afla ; where having colledled fome troops, and driven the king’s deputv out of the province, he kept in their duty the cities which had begun to waver, and were on the point of revolt.

V. After his return to Rome, he obtained from the fuf- fi age of the people the honorable rank of a military Tri- bune j and in this capacity zealoufly aflfifted the abettors pf the tribunitian authority, which had been greatly di- minifhed during the ufurpation of Sylla. He likewife by a bill, which Plotius at his inftigation preferred to the’ people, and was feconded by a fpeech from himfelf, pro- cured the recal of Lucius Cinna, his wife^s brother, and others, who had been fent into banifhment, for having fided with Lepidus, and afterwards with Sertorius, in the |ate public diflurbances.

VI. During his Quaeftorfhip he pronounced funeral ora- tions in the Roflra, according to cuflom, in praife of his paternal aunt Julia, and his wife Cornelia. In his pa^ jiegyric on the former, he gives the following account of



the genealogy both of her and his father : My aunt Julia derived her defcent, by the mother, from a race of kings, and, by her father, from the immortal Gods. For the Marcii Reges, which was her mother’s family, deduce their pedigree from Ancus Marcius, and the Julii, which is that of her father, from the goddefs Venus. We there- fore unite in our defcent the facred majefly of kings, the greatefl: among human kind, and the divine majefly of Gods, to wliom kings themfelves are fubje6l.” In the room of Cornelia he married Pompeia, the daughter of Ch Pompeius, and grand-daughter of L. Sylla ; but this lady he afterwards divorced, upon a fufpicion of her hav- ing had an intrigue with Publius Clodius. For fo cuF' rent was the report, that the latter had found accefs to her in woman’s habit, during the performance of a reli“< gious folemnity, that the Senate ordered a commiffion of enquiry refpedting the fuppofed profanation.

VII. Upon his appointment to the Quajflorihip the pro- vince of the Farther Spain fell to his lot ; where, when» by commiffion from the Prsetor, he was going the circuit of the country, for tlie adminiflration of juftice, and was arrived at Gades, feeing, in the temple of Hercules, a flatue of Alexander the Great, he fetched a deep figh ; and as if vexed at his ina6tlvify, for having performed nothing memorable at an age at which Alexander had conquered the world, lie immediately requefted his dif- charge, with the view of embracing the firll opportunity, which might prefent in the city, of entering upon a more fplendid career. His repofe was farther diiburbed by a dream which he had the fucceeding night, of having been guilty of inceftuous coinmerce with his mother. But the interpreters of dreams derived thence an omen of events the moft flattering to his ambition ; afErming it to be a

B 4 pre-



prefage that he fhould yet rule the empire of the world : for that the mother whom in his fleep he had feen ftfb- je6led to his will, was no other than the earth, the com- mon parent of all men.

VIII. Quitting therefore the province before the expi- ration of the ufual term, he had recouife to the Latin co- lonies, then eager in the projedt of folliciting for the free- dom of Rome ; and he would have excited them to fome bold attempt, had not the Confuls, to prevent any com- motion, detained for fome time the legions which had been railed for the fervice of Cilicia. But this vigilance of the government did not deter him from making, foon after, a yet greater eiFort within the precindls of the city itfelf.

IX. For a few days before he entered upon the yEdile- fliip, he incurred a fufpicion of engaging in a confpi- racy with M. CrafTiis, a man of confular rank ; to whom were joined^ P. Sylia and L. Autronius, who after they had been chofen Confuls, were convidfed of bribery^ The plan of the confpirators was to fall upon the Senate in the beginning of the year, and to murder as many of them as fhould be deemed expedient for their purpofe: upon which event CrafTus was to have afTumed the ofEce of Didlatcr, and appoint Caefar his Maher of the horfe When the commonwealth fhould thus have been fettled according to their pleafure, the Confulfhip was to have been rehored to Sylla and Autronius. Mention is made

* The proper office of the Maher of horfe was to com- mand the cavalry, and to execute the orders of the Didlator. He was ufuaily nominated from amongh thofe of confular and praetorian dignity ; and had the ufe of a horfe, which tiie didator had not without the order of the peoplL




of this plot by Tanufius Germinus in his hiflory, by M. Bibulus in his edi6ls, and by Curio the father, in his orations. Cicero likewife feems to hint at the fame tranfadlion in a letter to Atticus, where he fays, that Caefar had in his Confuiffiip fecured to himfelf that arbi- trary power to which he had afpired when he was ^dile* Tanufius adds, that Craffus, from remorfe or fear, did not appear upon the day appointed for the maffacre of the Senate : for which reafon Caefar did not give the fig- nal, which, according to the plan concerted betwen them, he was to have announced. The agreement. Curio fays, was, that he fhould flip his toga from his fltoulder. We have the authority of ,the fame Curio, and of M. Acto- rius Nafo, for his having been likewife concerned in an- other confpiracy wdth young Cn. Pifo ; to whom, upon a fufpicion of fome mifehief being meditated in the city^ the province of Spain was decreed out of courfe, as the means of fufpending any danger. It is how’ever faid to have been agreed between them, that Pifo thould ex-, cite an infurredtion agaiiift the government abroad, whiKt the other Ihould attempt a fimilar revolt within the limits of the domeftic adminiftration, by artfully prac- tifmg upon the feditious difpofitions of the Lambrani, and other tribes beyond the Po. But the execution of this defign, it is remarked, was prevented by the death of Pifo.

X. While In the office of^diie, he not only beautified the Comitium, with the reft of the Forum, and the courts adjoining, but the Capitol likewife, with piazzas, con- ftrudled only to fubfift until the end of his ^dilefhip ; that in them he might difplay the extraordinary prepa- rations he w'as making for the gratification of the peo- ple, whom he entertained with the hunting of wild




beafls, and plays, both in conjundlion with his colleague, and by himfelf. On this account, he obtained the whole credit of the expence to which they had jointly contributed; infomuch that his colleague, M. Bibulus, could not forbear remarking that he was ferved in the manner of Pollux. For as the temple eredled in the Fo- rum to the two brothers, was denominated Caflor’s only, fo his and Caefar’s joint munificence was imputed to the latter alone. To the other public fpedlacles exhibited to the people, Caefar added a combat of gladiators, but in a fraaller number than he had intended. For fo great was the company of them, which he colleTed from all parts, that thofe of the Patricians who were not of his party w^ere alarmed ; and the fenate pafTed an a6f, reftrldfing the fliews of gladiators to a certain number, which, for the future, no perfon fhould be allowed to exceed,

XI. Having thus conciliated the good graces of the peo- ple, he endeavored, through his interefl: with fome of the Tribunes, to procure, by a decree of the commons, the province of ^gypt. The pretext for fuch an applica- tion was, that the Alexandrians had violently expelled their king, whom the fenate had complimented with the title of an ally and friend of the Roman people. This tranfadlion, which feemed to afFe£l; the dignity of the re- public, produced a general fpirit of refentment among the populace at Rome : notwithflanding which, on account of an oppofuion from a party of the nobility, all the ef- forts of Caefar and his friends could not procure him the appointment. To diminihi therefore the authority of that body, by every means in his power, he rehored the trophies eredled in honor of C. Marius, upon account of his victories over Jugurtha, the Cimbri, and the Teuto- ni, but which had been demoli (bed by Sylla ; and fitting




in the capacitor of a judge, he treated as murderers all thofe who, in the late profcription, had received money- out of the treafury, for bringing in the heads of Roman citizens, though they had been exprefsly abfoived from punihiment by fubfequent laws.

XIT. He likewife procured a perfon to bring an im- peachment of treafon againfl C. Rabirius, by whofe af- fiftance the Senate had, a few years before, retrained the feditious attempts of L. Saturninus the Tribune ; and be- ing drawn by lot one of the judges for his trial, he difeo- vered fo ftrong a dehre to convidd him, that upon his ap- pealing to the people, no circumilance availed him'fo much as the extraordinary bitternefs of his judge,

XIII. Having renounced all hope of obtaining the pro- vince of ^gypt, he ftood candidate for the office of High-prieft, in the purfuit of which objedl, he had re- courfe to the' utmoft profufion of bribery. Refledling, on this occafion, on the greatnefs of the debts he had contradled, he is reported to have faid to Iiis mother, when file kiffied him at his going out in the morning to the elec- tion, “ I lhall never come home again, unlefs I am eledl- ed high-prieft.” In effeci, he fo much baffled two com- petitors of the moft powerful intereft,_and greatly fupe- rior to him both in age and dignity, that he had more votes in their own tiibes, than they both had in all toge- ther.

XIV. After he had been chofen Prsetor, the confpi- racy of Catiline was difeovered , and while every other member of the Senate inclined to infiidl: capital punifh- ment on the delinquents, he alone advifed to confifeate their eftates, and commit their perfons to feparate pri-

, Tons



fons through the towns of Italy. He even firuck fo great a terror into thofe who were advocates for greater feve- rity, . by reprefenting to them what a general odium they would infallibly incur, by carrying fuch a meafure into execution, that D. Silanus, Conful-Elecl:, thought proper to qualify his decifion, becaufe it was not very honor- able to change it, by a fofcening interpretation, as if his opinion had been underftood in a harflier fenfe than he intended ; and Casfar would certainly have carried his point, having brought over to his fide a great number of the Senators, among whom was the brother of the Conful Cicero, had not a fpeech of M. Cato’s infufed new vigor into the refolutions of the houfe. He per- fifted, however, to obftrudl their proceedings with intem- perate ardor, until a body of the equeflrian Order, that' (food under arms as a guard, holding up their drawn fwords, threatened him with immediate death. Thofe who fat next him inftantly moved off and a few friends, with no fmall difficulty, proteded him, by taking him in their arms, and holding their togas before him. Aj. laft, difpirited by this refentment, he not only relinquifh. ed the debate, but abfented himfelf from the houfe during the remainder of that year.

XV. Upon the firft day of his Prastorfliip, he fum- moned Catulus to render an account to the people concerning the repairs of the Capitol ; prefenting at the fame time a bill, for transferring that commiffion to an- other perfon. But being unable to withftand the ftrong oppofition made againft him by the ariflocratical party, whom he perceived quitting, in great numbers, their at- tendance upon the new Confuls, and fully refolved to refift his propofal, he dropt the defign.



y^VI. He afterwards approved himfelf a moft refolute adherent to Caecilius Metellus, Tribune of the commons» who had preferred fome bills of a feditious tendency to* the people, in fpite of all oppofiticn from his colleagues» until they were both difmifTed from office by a vote of the Senate. He ventured, notwithftanding, to continue in -the adminiftratlon of juflice; but finding fome pre- pared to obflru6l: him by force of arms, he difmifTed his officers, threw off his gown, and betook himfelf pri- vately to his own houfe, with the refolution of being quiet, in a time fo unfavorable to his interefts. He like- wife pacified the mob, which in two days after affembled about him, and in a riotous manner offered him their affiflance towards the vindication of his honor. This happening contrary to expedfation, the Senate, which had met in hafte, upon occafion of the tumult, gave him their thanks by fome of the leading members of the houfe, fent for him, and, after a high commendation of' his behaviour, cancelled their former vote, and reflored him to his place in the afTembly.

XVII. But he had fcarcely fooner emerged from his late difafter, than he fell again into a frefli danger ; be- ing named amongft the accomplices of Catiline, both be- fore Novius Niger the Quasflor, by the informer L. Vet- tius, and in the fenate by Curius ; to whom, for his having firfl; dlfcovered the defigns of the confpirators, a reward had been voted. Curius affirmed that he had re- ceived his Information from Catiline. Vettius even en- , gaged to produce in evidence againfl him his own hand writing, which he had given to Catiline. Csefar declar- ing this treatment to be intolerable, appealed to Cicero himfelf, whether he had not voluntarily made a difeo- very to him of feme particulars of the confpiracy ; by




whicb means he prevented Curius from receiving his expeded reward. He obliged Vettius to give pledges to anfwer for his behaviour, alienated his goods, and after feeing him roughly ufed, and almofl torn in pieces, in ait affembly of the people at the Roflra, threw him in pri- fon; to which he likewife fent Novius the Qu^hor, for having prefumed to take an information againft a magiflrate of fuperior authority.

XVIIL At the expiration of his Praetorlliip he got by lot the Farther Spain, and abated the violence of his creditors, who were for flopping him, by giving them fecurity Contrary, however, to both law and cullom, he took his departure before the ufual allowance for his equipage was paid him from the treafury. It is un- certain whether this precipitancy arofe from die appre- henfion of an impeachment, after the expiration of his provincial charge, which was intended, or from an ardor to relieve the allies, who anxiouily longed for his pre- fence. As foon as he had eftablidied tranquillity in the province, he, without waiting for the arrival of his fuc- cefTor, returned to Rome, with equal hafle, to fue for a triumph and the Confullhip. The day of elecflion, howxver, being already .fixed by proclamation, he could not legally be admitted a candidate, unlefs he entered the

* Plutarch informs us, that Ccxfar, before he came into any public office, orved his creditors to the amount of one thoufand three hundred talents, which makes of our mo* ney fomewhat more than 565,000!. But his debts encreafed fo much after this period, if we may believe Appian, that upon his departure for Spain, at the expiration of his Prac- torfliip, he is reported to have faid, millies et quingenties fibi decjje^ lit nihil haberet : i.e. That he was two miilions and neai* twenty thoufand pounds worfe than nothing,





City as a private perfon. Oii this emergency he folli- citcd a fufpenllon of the laws in his favor ; but fuch an indulgence being ftrongly oppofed, he found himfelf un- der the neceflity of abandoning all thoughts of a triunaph, left he lliould be difappointed of the Confulfhip.

XIX. Of the two other competitors for the Conful- fhip, L. Luceius and M. Bibulus, he.joined with the for- mer, upon condition that Luceius, being a man of lefs intereft but greater affluence, Biould promife money to the burgeffles in the name of them both. His opponents among the nobility dreading what enterprife he might attempt, fhould he get poffeflion of the Confulfliip with a colleague of the fame difpofitions with himfelf, advifed Bibulus to promife the voters as much, and moft of them contributed towards a fhare of the expence ; Cato himfelf admitting that bribery upon fuch an occafion was confiftent with, and even abfolutely necclTary to the good of the public. He was accordingly eledled Conful with Bibulus. Adtuated ftill by the fame motives, the prevailing party took care to affign provinces of fmall importance to the new Confuls, fuch as the care of woods and roads. Caefar, incenfed at this indignity, endeavored by the moft affiduous and flattering attentions to gain to his fide. Cn. Pompey, at that time diffatisfled with the Senate, for the backwardnefs tliey fliewed to confirm his adls, after the conqueft of Mithridates. He iikewife produced a reconciliation between Pompey and M. CralTuSy who had ’been at variance from the time of their joint Confulihip, in which office they were con- tinually clafliing ; and he entered into an agreement with both, that nothing fliould be tranfadled in die go- vernment, that was difpieafing to any of the three.

XX. Hav-



XX» Having entered upon his ofEce, he introduced a new regulation, which was, that all the adls both of the Senate and people ihould be daily committed to writing, and immediately made public. He alfo revived an old cuflom, that an Accenfus * ihould walk betore him, and hisLi^lors follow him, on the alternate months when the fafccs were not carried in his train» Upon preferring a bill to the people for the divifion of feme public lands, he was oppofed by his colleague, whom he violently drove out of the Forum. Next day the infulted Conful made a complaint in the Senate of this treatment ; but no member having the courage to move or advife the houfe refpedling fo ferious an outrage, which had yet been often done upon incidents of lefs importance, he was fo much difpirited, that until the expiration of his office he never (lirred from home, and only endeavored to obftrudl: the proceedings of his colleague by procla- ' mations. From that time, therefore, Caefar had the foie management of public affairs ; infomuch that foine wags, when they ligned any writing as witneffes, did not add in the confulfhip of Caefar and Bibulus,” but, of Ju- lius and Casfar putting the fame perfon down twice under his name and fujname. The following verfes iikewife were currently repeated on this occafion :

Non Bibulo quidquam nuper, fed Caefare fadtum eft ;

Nam Bibulo fieri Confuie nil memini.

Nothing was done in Bibulus^^s year :

No j Csefar only was late Conful here.

* Within the city, the Li<ftors went before only one of the Confuls, and that commonly for a month alternately. A public fervant, called Accenfus, went before the other Conful, and the Lidfors followed. This ciiftom had long been difufed, but was now reftored by Csefar.




The land of Stella, confecrated by our anceftors to the gods, with fome other land of Campania left liable to tribute, to fupport the expences of the government, he divided, but not by lot, among upwards of twenty thou- fand feamen, who had each of them three or more chil- dren. He eafed the Publicans, upon their petition, of a third part of the fum which they had engaged to pay into the public treafury ; and openly admonifh'ed them not to bid fo extravagantly upon the next occafion. All other things he difpofed of at pleafure, without the leaf!: oppofition from any quarter ; or if any attempt to that purpofe ever became evident, it foon was fupprelTed. M. Cato, who interrupted him in his proceedings, he ordered to be dragged out of the Senate-houfe by an officer, and carried to prifon. L. Lucullus, likewife, for oppofing him with fome warmth, he fo terrified with the appre- henfion of falfe accufatiouj that^ to deprecate the Confur# refentment, he fell down on his knees. And upon Cice- ro’s lamenting in fome trial the miferable condition of the times, he the very fame day by nine o’clock, brought over his enemy P. Clodius from the nobility to the com- mons ; a tranfition which that perfonage himfelf had a long time follicited in vain. At laft, effedfually to in- timidate all thofe of the oppofite party, he by great re- wards prevailed upon Vettius to declare, that he had been follicited by certain perfons to affaffinate Pompey 5 and when he was brought upon the Roftra to name fueh as had been concerted between thern, after naming one or two to no purpofcj not without great fufpicion of fub- ornation, Caefar, defpairlng of fuccefs in this rafh ftra- tagem, is fuppofedto have taken offhis informer by means of poifon.

XXL About the fame time I\e married Calpurma, the C dau:-rhter



daughter of L. Pifo, who was to fucceed hirrl in the Con- fiilfliip, and gave his ow^n daughter to Pompey; rejevStlng Servilius Caepio, to whom flie had been contradled, and by whofe means chiefly he had but a little before baffled Bibulus. After this new alliance, he began, upon any debates in the Senate, to alk Pompey^s opinion firfl: ; whereas he ufed before to pay that compliment to M. Craflfus ; and it was the ufual pra6tice with the Conful to obferve throughout the year the method of confulting the houfe which he had adopted the fhll of January.

XXII. Being therefore now fupported by the interell of his father and fon-in-law, of all the provinces he made choice of Gaul, as mofl: likely to furnifh him with matter and occafion for triumphs. At firfl; indeed he received only Cifalpine Gaul, with the addition of Illyricum, by a bill of Vatinius to the people ; but foon after obtained by the fenate Gallia Comata ^ likewife ; the houfe en- tertaining an apprehenfion, that if they Ihould with-hold this province, it would be conferred on him by the com- mons.

* Gallia was anciently divided into the Tranfalpina^ or Ulterior^ and Cifalpma^ or Citerior^ with refpeft to Rome, The Citerior was properly a part of Italy, occupied by Gallic colonifts ; having the Rubicon, the ancient boundary of Italy, on the fouth. It was alfo called Gallia Togata^ from the ufe of the Roman toga; the inhabitants of thofe parts being, after the focial war, admitted to the right of ci- tizens. The Gallia Tranfalpina^ or Ulterior^ was called Co- mata^ from the people wearing their hair long, which the Romans wore fliort; and the fouthern part of it, afterwards called NarbonenJiSy came to have the epithet Braccata, from